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  1. Coincidence ion pair production (I + + I − ) (cipp) spectra of I 2 were recorded in a double imaging coincidence experiment in the one-photon excitation region of 71 600–74 000 cm −1 . The I + + I − coincidence signal shows vibrational band head structure corresponding to iodine molecule Rydberg states crossing over to ion-pair (I + I − ) potential curves above the dissociation limit. The band origin ( ν 0 ), vibrational wavenumber ( ω e ) and anharmonicity constants ( ω e x e ) were determined for the identified Rydberg states. The analysis revealed a number of previously unidentified states and a reassignment of others following a discrepancy in previous assignments. Since the ion pair production threshold is well established, the electric field-dependent spectral intensities were used to derive the cutoff energy in the transitions to the rotational levels of the 7pσ(1/2) ( v ′ = 3) state.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2023
  2. Chiral transition-metal complexes are of interest in many fields ranging from asymmetric catalysis and molecular materials science to optoelectronic applications or fundamental physics including parity violation effects. We present here a combined theoretical and experimental investigation of gas-phase valence-shell photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) on the challenging open-shell ruthenium( iii )-tris-(acetylacetonato) complex, Ru(acac) 3 . Enantiomerically pure Δ- or Λ-Ru(acac) 3 , characterized by electronic circular dichroism (ECD), were vaporized and adiabatically expanded to produce a supersonic beam and photoionized by circularly-polarized VUV light from the DESIRS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and PECD experiments were conducted using a double imaging electron/ion coincidence spectrometer, and compared to density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. The open-shell character of Ru(acac) 3 , which is not taken into account in our DFT approach, is expected to give rise to a wide multiplet structure, which is not resolved in our PES signals but whose presence might be inferred from the additional striking features observed in the PECD curves. Nevertheless, the DFT-based assignment of the electronic bands leads to the characterisation of the ionized orbitals. In line with other recent works, the results confirm that PECD persists independently on the localizationmore »and/or on the achiral or chiral nature of the initial orbital, but is rather a probe of the molecular potential as a whole. Overall, the measured PECD signals on Ru(acac) 3 , a system exhibiting D 3 propeller-type chirality, are of similar magnitude compared to those on asymmetric-carbon-based chiral organic molecules which constitute the vast majority of species investigated so far, thus suggesting that PECD is a universal mechanism, inherent to any type of chirality.« less
  3. Coincidence ion pair production (cipp) spectra of F 2 were recorded on the DELICIOUS III coincidence spectrometer in the one-photon excitation region of 125 975–126 210 cm −1 . The F + + F − signal shows a rotational band head structure, corresponding to F 2 Rydberg states crossing over to the ion pair production surface. Spectral simulation and quantum defect analysis allowed the characterization of five new molecular Rydberg states (F 2 **): one Π and four Σ states. The lowest-energy Rydberg state spectrum observed ( T 0 = 125 999 cm −1 ) lacked some of the predicted rotational structure, which allowed an accurate determination of the ion pair production threshold of 15.6229 4 ± 0.0004 3 eV. Using the well-known atomic fluorine ionization energy and electron affinity, this number leads to a ground state F–F dissociation energy of 1.6012 9 ± 0.0004 4 eV. Photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) experiments were also carried out on F 2 and the dissociative photoionization threshold to F + + F was determined as 19.0242 ± 0.0006 eV. Using the atomic fluorine ionization energy, this can be converted to an F 2 dissociation energy of 1.6013 2 ± 0.0006 2 eV, further confirming the cipp-derivedmore »value above. Because the two experiments were independently energy-calibrated, they can be averaged to 1.6013 0 ± 0.0003 6 eV and this value can be used to derive the fluorine atom's 0 K heat of formation as 77.25 1 ± 0.01 7 kJ mol −1 . This latter is in excellent agreement with the latest Active Thermochemical Table (ATcT) value but improves its accuracy by almost a factor of three.« less