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Comparing Performances of Five Distinct Automatic Classifiers for Fin Whale Vocalizations in Beamformed Spectrograms of Coherent Hydrophone ArrayA large variety of sound sources in the ocean, including biological, geophysical, and man-made, can be simultaneously monitored over instantaneous continental-shelf scale regions via the passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) technique by employing a large-aperture densely-populated coherent hydrophone array system. Millions of acoustic signals received on the POAWRS system per day can make it challenging to identify individual sound sources. An automated classification system is necessary to enable sound sources to be recognized. Here, the objectives are to (i) gather a large training and test data set of fin whale vocalization and other acoustic signal detections; (ii) build multiple fin whale vocalization classifiers, including a logistic regression, support vector machine (SVM), decision tree, convolutional neural network (CNN), and long short-term memory (LSTM) network; (iii) evaluate and compare performance of these classifiers using multiple metrics including accuracy, precision, recall and F1-score; and (iv) integrate one of the classifiers into the existing POAWRS array and signal processing software. The findings presented here will (1) provide an automatic classifier for near real-time fin whale vocalization detection and recognition, useful in marine mammal monitoring applications; and (2) lay the foundation for building an automatic classifier applied for near real-time detection and recognitionmore »
An eight-element oil-filled hydrophone array is used to measure the acoustic field in littoral waters. This prototype array was deployed during an experiment between Jeffrey’s Ledge and the Stellwagen Bank region off the coast of Rockport, Massachusetts USA. During the experiment, several humpback whale vocalizations, distant ship tonals and high frequency conventional echosounder pings were recorded. Visual confirmation of humpback moving in bearing relative to the array verifies the directional sensing from array beamforming. During deployment, the array is towed at speeds varying from 4-7 kts in water depths of roughly 100 m with conditions at sea state 2 to 3. This array system consists of a portable winch with array, tow cable and 3 water-resistant boxes housing electronics. This system is deployed and operated by 2 crew members onboard a 13 m commercial fishing vessel during the experiment. Non-acoustic sensor (NAS) information is obtained to provide depth, temperature, and heading data using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components utilizing RS485/232 data communications. Acoustic data sampling was performed at 8 kHz, 30 kHz and 100 kHz with near real-time processing of data and enhanced Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) from beamforming. The electrical system components are deployed with 3 stackedmore »