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  1. A bstract We present a detailed analysis of the spectral data of Borexino Phase II, with the aim of exploiting its full potential to constrain scenarios beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we quantify the constraints imposed on neutrino magnetic moments, neutrino non-standard interactions, and several simplified models with light scalar, pseudoscalar or vector mediators. Our analysis shows perfect agreement with those performed by the collaboration on neutrino magnetic moments and neutrino non-standard interactions in the same restricted cases and expands beyond those, stressing the interplay between flavour oscillations and flavour non-diagonal interaction effects for the correct evaluation of the event rates. For simplified models with light mediators we show the power of the spectral data to obtain robust limits beyond those previously estimated in the literature.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. A bstract Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering was first experimentally established five years ago by the COHERENT experiment using neutrinos from the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The first evidence of observation of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering with reactor antineutrinos has now been reported by the Dresden-II reactor experiment, using a germanium detector. In this paper, we present constraints on a variety of beyond the Standard Model scenarios using the new Dresden-II data. In particular, we explore the constraints imposed on neutrino non-standard interactions, neutrino magnetic moments, and several models with light scalar or light vector mediators. We also quantify the impact of their combination with COHERENT (CsI and Ar) data. In doing so, we highlight the synergies between spallation neutron source and nuclear reactor experiments regarding beyond the Standard Model searches, as well as the advantages of combining data obtained with different nuclear targets. We also study the possible signal from beyond the Standard Model scenarios due to elastic scattering off electrons (which would pass selection cuts of the COHERENT CsI and the Dresden-II experiments) and find more stringent constraints in certain parts of the parameter space than those obtained considering coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering.
  3. Abstract Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of high-energy radiation arising from energetic cosmic explosions. Bursts of long (greater than two seconds) duration are produced by the core-collapse of massive stars 1 , and those of short (less than two seconds) duration by the merger of compact objects, such as two neutron stars 2 . A third class of events with hybrid high-energy properties was identified 3 , but never conclusively linked to a stellar progenitor. The lack of bright supernovae rules out typical core-collapse explosions 4–6 , but their distance scales prevent sensitive searches for direct signatures of a progenitor system. Only tentative evidence for a kilonova has been presented 7,8 . Here we report observations of the exceptionally bright GRB 211211A, which classify it as a hybrid event and constrain its distance scale to only 346 megaparsecs. Our measurements indicate that its lower-energy (from ultraviolet to near-infrared) counterpart is powered by a luminous (approximately 10 42  erg per second) kilonova possibly formed in the ejecta of a compact object merger.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 8, 2023
  4. A bstract We quantify the effect of gauge bosons from a weakly coupled lepton flavor dependent U(1) ′ interaction on the matter background in the evolution of solar, atmospheric, reactor and long-baseline accelerator neutrinos in the global analysis of oscillation data. The analysis is performed for interaction lengths ranging from the Sun-Earth distance to effective contact neutrino interactions. We survey ∼ 10000 set of models characterized by the six relevant fermion U(1) ′ charges and find that in all cases, constraints on the coupling and mass of the Z′ can be derived. We also find that about 5% of the U(1) ′ model charges lead to a viable LMA-D solution but this is only possible in the contact interaction limit. We explicitly quantify the constraints for a variety of models including $$ \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{B-3{L}_e} $$ U 1 B − 3 L e , $$ \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{B-3{L}_{\mu }} $$ U 1 B − 3 L μ , $$ \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{B-3{L}_{\tau }} $$ U 1 B − 3 L τ , $$ \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{B-\frac{3}{2}\left({L}_{\mu }+{L}_{\tau}\right)} $$ U 1 B − 3 2 L μ + L τ , $$ \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{L_e-{L}_{\mu }} $$ U 1 L e − L μ , $$ \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{L_e-{L}_{\tau }} $$ U 1more »L e − L τ , $$ \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{L_e-\frac{1}{2}\left({L}_{\mu }+{L}_{\tau}\right)} $$ U 1 L e − 1 2 L μ + L τ . We compare the constraints imposed by our oscillation analysis with the strongest bounds from fifth force searches, violation of equivalence principle as well as bounds from scattering experiments and white dwarf cooling. Our results show that generically, the oscillation analysis improves over the existing bounds from gravity tests for Z′ lighter than ∼ 10 − 8 → 10 − 11 eV depending on the specific couplings. In the contact interaction limit, we find that for most models listed above there are values of g′ and M Z′ for which the oscillation analysis provides constraints beyond those imposed by laboratory experiments. Finally we illustrate the range of Z′ and couplings leading to a viable LMA-D solution for two sets of models.« less

    2MASS J20395358+4222505  is an obscured early B supergiant near the massive OB star association Cygnus OB2. Despite its bright infrared magnitude (Ks = 5.82) it has remained largely ignored because of its dim optical magnitude (B = 16.63, V = 13.68). In a previous paper, we classified it as a highly reddened, potentially extremely luminous, early B-type supergiant. We obtained its spectrum in the U, B and R spectral bands during commissioning observations with the instrument MEGARA at the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. It displays a particularly strong Hα emission for its spectral type, B1 Ia. The star seems to be in an intermediate phase between supergiant and hypergiant, a group that it will probably join in the near (astronomical) future. We observe a radial velocity difference between individual observations and determine the stellar parameters, obtaining Teff = 24 000 K and log gc = 2.88 ± 0.15. The rotational velocity found is large for a B supergiant, $v$ sin i = 110 ± 25 $\rm km\, s^{-1}$. The abundance pattern is consistent with solar, with a mild C  underabundance (based on a single line). Assuming that J20395358+4222505  is at the distance of Cyg OB2, we derive the radius from infrared photometry, finding R = 41.2 ± 4.0 R⊙, log(L/L⊙) = 5.71 ± 0.04 and a spectroscopic mass of 46.5 ± 15.0 M⊙. The clumped mass-loss rate (clumping factor 10)more »is very high for the spectral type, $\dot{M}$ = 2.4 × 10−6 M⊙ a−1. The high rotational velocity and mass-loss rate place the star at the hot side of the bi-stability jump. Together with the nearly solar CNO abundance pattern, they may also point to evolution in a binary system, J20395358+4222505  being the initial secondary.

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