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  1. We present measurements of light scattering intensity from aerosolized, micron sized, irregularly shaped, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) particles in order to study the effects of a refractive index, m = n + i κ, with large real and imaginary parts. Light scattering was measured over a range of angles from 0.32 °to 157 °. Calibration was achieved by scattering with micron sized, spherical silica particles. Light scattering for both particle types was compared to theoretical Mie scattering calculations using size distributions deter- mined by an aerodynamic particle sizer. Effects of the intensity weighted size distribution are discussed. We findmore »that scattering by these irregularly shaped, highly refractive particles is well described by Mie scattering. We also find that when the quantity κkR, where kR = 2 πR/ λis the size parameter, is greater than one, there is no enhancement in the backscattering. Finally, we show that Guinier analysis of light scattering by highly refractive particles yields intensity weighted mean sizes of reasonable accuracy for any shape.« less
  2. We present measurements of the scattered light intensity by aerosolized hematite aggregate particles. The measurements were made at a wavelength of 532 nm in the scattering angle range from 0.32 °to 157 °. Hematite has high values of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index m = n + i κ= 3 + i0.5 at the studied wavelength. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) indicated that the particles were aggregates whereas the optical microscope pictures showed that the aerosol had a bimodal distribution with effective mean diameters of roughly 1 and 10 μm. This is consistent with the light scatteringmore »results which displayed two Guinier regimes. The aggregates were composed of smaller grains with an approximate size of 200 nm. Ultra Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS) indicate that the aggregates were uniform and non-fractal. Mie calculations for a sphere equivalent to the aggregate size were compared to the experimentally observed results. The observed results showed an enhanced backscattering, whereas the Mie calculations did not due to the large imaginary part of the refractive index. Hematite aggregates were simulated by assuming they were composed of spherical monomers inside a spherical volume. Then the light scattering was calculated using the T-matrix method for these simulated aggregates. The calculated results show an enhanced backscattering. We present a dimensional analysis to estimate the extent of multiple scattering within the aggregate and find a correlation between the average number of scattering events within the aggregate and the enhancement in the backscattering.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. Abstract The EXO-200 experiment searched for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 136 Xe with a single-phase liquid xenon detector. It used an active mass of 110 kg of 80.6%-enriched liquid xenon in an ultra-low background time projection chamber with ionization and scintillation detection and readout. This paper describes the design and performance of the various support systems necessary for detector operation, including cryogenics, xenon handling, and controls. Novel features of the system were driven by the need to protect the thin-walled detector chamber containing the liquid xenon, to achieve high chemical purity of the Xe, and to maintain thermal uniformity acrossmore »the detector.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  5. Abstract The nEXO neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ ) decay experiment is designed to use a time projection chamber and 5000 kg of isotopically enriched liquid xenon to search for the decay in 136 Xe. Progress in the detector design, paired with higher fidelity in its simulation and an advanced data analysis, based on the one used for the final results of EXO-200, produce a sensitivity prediction that exceeds the half-life of 10 28 years. Specifically, improvements have been made in the understanding of production of scintillation photons and charge as well as of their transport and reconstruction in the detector.more »The more detailed knowledge of the detector construction has been paired with more assays for trace radioactivity in different materials. In particular, the use of custom electroformed copper is now incorporated in the design, leading to a substantial reduction in backgrounds from the intrinsic radioactivity of detector materials. Furthermore, a number of assumptions from previous sensitivity projections have gained further support from interim work validating the nEXO experiment concept. Together these improvements and updates suggest that the nEXO experiment will reach a half-life sensitivity of 1.35 × 10 28 yr at 90% confidence level in 10 years of data taking, covering the parameter space associated with the inverted neutrino mass ordering, along with a significant portion of the parameter space for the normal ordering scenario, for almost all nuclear matrix elements. The effects of backgrounds deviating from the nominal values used for the projections are also illustrated, concluding that the nEXO design is robust against a number of imperfections of the model.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 3, 2022