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  1. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly skewness encapsulates the nonlinear processes of strong ENSO events and affects future climate projections. Yet, its response to CO2 forcing remains not well understood. Here, we find ENSO skewness hysteresis in a large ensemble CO2 removal simulation. The positive SST skewness in the central-to-eastern tropical Pacific gradually weakens (most pronounced near the dateline) in response to increasing CO2, but weakens even further once CO2 is ramped down. Further analyses reveal that hysteresis of the Intertropical Convergence Zone migration leads to more active and farther eastward-located strong eastern Pacific El Niño events, thus decreasing central Pacific ENSO skewness by reducing the amplitude of the central Pacific positive SST anomalies and increasing the scaling effect of the eastern Pacific skewness denominator, i.e., ENSO intensity, respectively. The reduction of eastern Pacific El Niño maximum intensity, which is constrained by the SST zonal gradient of the projected background El Niño-like warming pattern, also contributes to a reduction of eastern Pacific SST skewness around the CO2 peak phase. This study highlights the divergent responses of different strong El Niño regimes in response to climate change. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the strongest interannual climate variability with far-reaching socioeconomic consequences. Many studies have investigated ENSO-projected changes under future greenhouse warming, but its responses to plausible mitigation behaviors remain unknown. We show that ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) variability and associated global teleconnection patterns exhibit strong hysteretic responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction based on the 28-member ensemble simulations of the CESM1.2 model under an idealized CO2 ramp-up and ramp-down scenario. There is a substantial increase in the ensemble-averaged eastern Pacific SST anomaly variance during the ramp-down period compared to the ramp-up period. Such ENSO hysteresis is mainly attributed to the hysteretic response of the tropical Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone meridional position to CO2 removal and is further supported by several selected single-member Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) model simulations. The presence of ENSO hysteresis leads to its amplified and prolonged impact in a warming climate, depending on the details of future mitigation pathways. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 4, 2024
  3. Relative to conventional chemical approaches, electrochemical assembly of metal chalcogenide nanoparticles enables the use of two additional levers for tuning the assembly process: electrode material and potential. In our prior work, oxidative and metal-mediated pathways for electrochemical assembly of metal chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) into three-dimensional gel architectures were investigated independently by employing a noble-metal (Pt) electrode at relatively high potentials and a non-noble metal electrode at relatively low potentials, respectively. In the present work, we reveal competition between the two electrogelation pathways under the condition of high oxidation potentials and non-noble metal electrodes (including Ni, Co, Zn, and Ag), where both pathways are active. We found that the electrogel structure formed under this condition is electrode material-dependent. For Ni, the major phase is oxidative electrogel, not a potential-dependent mixture of oxidative and metal-mediated electrogel that one would expect. A mechanistic study reveals that the metal-mediated electrogelation is suppressed by dithiolates, a side product from the oxidative electrogelation, which block the Ni electrode surface and terminate metal ion release. In contrast, for Co, Ag, and Zn, the electrode surface blockage by dithiolates is less effective than for Ni, such that metal-mediated electrogelation is the primary gelation pathway. 
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  4. Abstract Recent studies demonstrated the existence of a conspicuous atmospheric combination mode (C-mode) originating from nonlinear interactions between El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific warm pool annual cycle (AC). Here we find that the C-mode exhibits prominent decadal amplitude variations during the ENSO decaying boreal spring season. It is revealed that the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) can largely explain this waxing and waning in amplitude. A robust positive correlation between ENSO and the C-mode is detected during a negative AMO phase but not during a positive phase. Similar results can also be found in the relationship of ENSO with 1) the western North Pacific (WNP) anticyclone and 2) spring precipitation over southern China, both of which are closely associated with the C-mode. We suggest that ENSO property changes due to an AMO modulation play a crucial role in determining these decadal shifts. During a positive AMO phase, ENSO events are distinctly weaker than those in an AMO negative phase. In addition, El Niño events concurrent with a positive AMO phase tend to exhibit a westward-shifted sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern. These SST characteristics during the positive AMO phase are both not conducive to the development of the meridionally asymmetric C-mode atmospheric circulation pattern and thus reduce the ENSO/C-mode correlation on decadal time scales. These observations can be realistically reproduced by a coupled general circulation model (CGCM) experiment in which North Atlantic SSTs are nudged to reproduce a 50-yr sinusoidally varying AMO evolution. Our conclusion carries important implications for understanding seasonally modulated ENSO dynamics and multiscale climate impacts over East Asia. 
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  5. Abstract

    Atmospheric NO2is of great concern due to its adverse effects on human health and the environment, motivating research on NO2detection and remediation. Existing low-cost room-temperature NO2sensors often suffer from low sensitivity at the ppb level or long recovery times, reflecting the trade-off between sensor response and recovery time. Here, we report an atomically dispersed metal ion strategy to address it. We discover that bimetallic PbCdSe quantum dot (QD) gels containing atomically dispersed Pb ionic sites achieve the optimal combination of strong sensor response and fast recovery, leading to a high-performance room-temperature p-type semiconductor NO2sensor as characterized by a combination of ultra–low limit of detection, high sensitivity and stability, fast response and recovery. With the help of theoretical calculations, we reveal the high performance of the PbCdSe QD gel arises from the unique tuning effects of Pb ionic sites on NO2binding at their neighboring Cd sites.

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