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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Neural networks have become increasingly effective at many difficult machine learning tasks. However, the nonlinear and large-scale nature of neural networks makes them hard to analyze, and, therefore, they are mostly used as blackbox models without formal guarantees. This issue becomes even more complicated when neural networks are used in learning-enabled closed-loop systems, where a small perturbation can substantially impact the system being controlled. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to develop tools that can provide useful certificates of stability, safety, and robustness for neural network-driven systems.In this overview, we present a convex optimization framework for the analysis of neuralmore »networks. The main idea is to abstract hard-to-analyze components of a neural network (e.g., the nonlinear activation functions) with the formalism of quadratic constraints. This abstraction allows us to reason about various properties of neural networks (safety, robustness, generalization, stability in closed-loop settings, etc.) via semidefinite programming.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 14, 2022
  4. Abstract We present details of a high-accuracy absolute scalar magnetometer based on pulsed proton NMR. The B-field magnitude is determined from the precession frequency of proton spins in a cylindrical sample of water after accounting for field perturbations from probe materials, sample shape, and other corrections. Features of the design, testing procedures, and corrections necessary for qualification as an absolute scalar magnetometer are described. The device was tested at B = 1.45 T but can be modified for a range exceeding 1–3 T. The magnetometer was used to calibrate other NMR magnetometers and measure absolute magnetic field magnitudes to anmore »accuracy of 19 parts per billion as part of a measurement of the muon magnetic moment anomaly at Fermilab.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Abstract As more global satellite-derived precipitation products become available, it is imperative to evaluate them more carefully for providing guidance as to how well precipitation space-time features are captured for use in hydrologic modeling, climate studies and other applications. Here we propose a space-time Fourier spectral analysis and define a suite of metrics which evaluate the spatial organization of storm systems, the propagation speed and direction of precipitation features, and the space-time scales at which a satellite product reproduces the variability of a reference “ground-truth” product (“effective resolution”). We demonstrate how the methodology relates to our physical intuition using themore »case study of a storm system with rich space-time structure. We then evaluate five high-resolution multi-satellite products (CMORPH, GSMaP, IMERG-early, IMERG-final and PERSIANN-CCS) over a period of two years over the southeastern US. All five satellite products show generally consistent space-time power spectral density when compared to a reference ground gauge-radar dataset (GV-MRMS), revealing agreement in terms of average morphology and dynamics of precipitation systems. However, a deficit of spectral power at wavelengths shorter than 200 km and periods shorter than 4 h reveals that all satellite products are excessively “smooth”. The products also show low levels of spectral coherence with the gauge-radar reference at these fine scales, revealing discrepancies in capturing the location and timing of precipitation features. From the space-time spectral coherence, the IMERG-final product shows superior ability in resolving the space-time dynamics of precipitation down to 200 km and 4 h scales compared to the other products.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 10, 2022
  6. Background Though the gut microbiome has been associated with efficacy of immunotherapy (ICI) in certain cancers, similar findings have not been identified for microbiomes from other body sites and their correlation to treatment response and immune related adverse events (irAEs) in lung cancer (LC) patients receiving ICIs. Methods We designed a prospective cohort study conducted from 2018 to 2020 at a single-center academic institution to assess for correlations between the microbiome in various body sites with treatment response and development of irAEs in LC patients treated with ICIs. Patients must have had measurable disease, ECOG 0–2, and good organ functionmore »to be included. Data was collected for analysis from January 2019 to October 2020. Patients with histopathologically confirmed, advanced/metastatic LC planned to undergo immunotherapy-based treatment were enrolled between September 2018 and June 2019. Nasal, buccal and gut microbiome samples were obtained prior to initiation of immunotherapy +/− chemotherapy, at development of adverse events (irAEs), and at improvement of irAEs to grade 1 or less. Results Thirty-seven patients were enrolled, and 34 patients were evaluable for this report. 32 healthy controls (HC) from the same geographic region were included to compare baseline gut microbiota. Compared to HC, LC gut microbiota exhibited significantly lower α-diversity. The gut microbiome of patients who did not suffer irAEs were found to have relative enrichment of Bifidobacterium (p = 0.001) and Desulfovibrio (p = 0.0002). Responders to combined chemoimmunotherapy exhibited increased Clostridiales (p = 0.018) but reduced Rikenellaceae (p = 0.016). In responders to chemoimmunotherapy we also observed enrichment of Finegoldia in nasal microbiome, and increased Megasphaera but reduced Actinobacillus in buccal samples. Longitudinal samples exhibited a trend of α-diversity and certain microbial changes during the development and resolution of irAEs. Conclusions This pilot study identifies significant differences in the gut microbiome between HC and LC patients, and their correlation to treatment response and irAEs in LC. In addition, it suggests potential predictive utility in nasal and buccal microbiomes, warranting further validation with a larger cohort and mechanistic dissection using preclinical models.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  7. There has been an increasing interest in using neural networks in closed-loop control systems to improve performance and reduce computational costs for on-line implementation. However, providing safety and stability guarantees for these systems is challenging due to the nonlinear and compositional structure of neural networks. In this paper, we propose a novel forward reachability analysis method for the safety verification of linear time-varying systems with neural networks in feedback interconnection. Our technical approach relies on abstracting the nonlinear activation functions by quadratic constraints, which leads to an outer-approximation of forward reachable sets of the closed-loop system. We show that wemore »can compute these approximate reachable sets using semidefinite programming. We illustrate our method in a quadrotor example, in which we first approximate a nonlinear model predictive controller via a deep neural network and then apply our analysis tool to certify finite-time reachability and constraint satisfaction of the closed-loop system.« less