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  1. Abstract

    Supercapacitors are beneficial as energy storage devices and can obtain high capacitance values greater than conventional capacitors and high power densities compared to batteries. However, in order to improve upon the overall cost, energy density, and charge-discharge rates, the electrode material of supercapacitors needs to be fine-tuned with an inexpensive, high conducting source. We prepared a Co(III) complex and polypyrrole (PPy) composite thin films (CoN4-PPy) that was electrochemically deposited on the surface of a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate the superior performance of CoN4-PPy in charge storage in acidic electrolyte compared to alkaline and organic solutions. The CoN4-PPy material generated the highest amount of specific capacitance (up to 721.9 F/g) followed by Co salt and PPy (Co-PPy) material and PPy alone. Cyclic performance studies showed the excellent electrochemical stability of the CoN4-PPy film in the acidic medium. Simply electrochemically depositing an inexpensive Co(III) complex with a high electrically conducting polymer of PPy delivered a superior electrode material for supercapacitor applications. Therefore, the results indicate that novel thin films derived from Co(III) metal complex and PPy can store a large amount of energy and maintain high stability over many cycles, revealing its excellent potential in supercapacitor devices.

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  2. Abstract

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) convert low‐energy infrared (IR) or near‐infrared (NIR) photons into high‐energy emission radiation ranging from ultraviolet to visible through a photon upconversion process. In comparison to conventional fluorophores, such as organic dyes or semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanide‐ion‐doped UCNPs exhibit high photostability, no photoblinking, no photobleaching, low cytotoxicity, sharp emission lines, and long luminescent lifetimes. Additionally, the use of IR or NIR for excitation in such UCNPs reduces the autofluorescence background and enables deeper penetration into biological samples due to reduced light scattering with negligible damage to the samples. Because of these attributes, UCNPs have found numerous potential applications in biological and medicinal fields as novel fluorescent materials. Different upconversion mechanisms commonly observed in UCNPs, various methods that are used in their synthesis, and surface modification processes are discussed. Recent applications of Ln‐UCNPs in the biological and medicinal fields, including in vivo and in vitro biological imaging, multimodal imaging, photodynamic therapy, drug delivery, and antibacterial activity, are also presented.

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  3. Abstract The semiconductor tracker (SCT) is one of the tracking systems for charged particles in the ATLAS detector. It consists of 4088 silicon strip sensor modules.During Run 2 (2015–2018) the Large Hadron Collider delivered an integrated luminosity of 156 fb -1 to the ATLAS experiment at a centre-of-mass proton-proton collision energy of 13 TeV. The instantaneous luminosity and pile-up conditions were far in excess of those assumed in the original design of the SCT detector.Due to improvements to the data acquisition system, the SCT operated stably throughout Run 2.It was available for 99.9% of the integrated luminosity and achieved a data-quality efficiency of 99.85%.Detailed studies have been made of the leakage current in SCT modules and the evolution of the full depletion voltage, which are used to study the impact of radiation damage to the modules. 
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