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  1. ABSTRACT Star-forming galaxies are rich reservoirs of dust, both warm and cold. But the cold dust emission is faint alongside the relatively bright and ubiquitous warm dust emission. Recently, evidence for a very cold dust (VCD) component has also been revealed via millimetre/submillimetre (mm/sub-mm) photometry of some galaxies. This component, despite being the most massive of the three dust components in star-forming galaxies, is by virtue of its very low temperature, faint and hard to detect together with the relatively bright emission from warmer dust. Here, we analyse the dust content of a carefully selected sample of four galaxies detectedmore »by IRAS, WISE, and South Pole Telescope (SPT), whose spectral energy distributions (SEDs) were modelled to constrain their potential cold dust content. Low-frequency radio observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) were carried out to segregate cold dust emission from non-thermal emission in mm/sub-mm wavebands. We also carried out AstroSat/Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) observations for some galaxies to constrain their SED at shorter wavelengths so as to enforce energy balance for the SED modelling. We constructed their SEDs across a vast wavelength range (extending from UV to radio frequencies) by assembling global photometry from GALEX FUV + NUV, UVIT, Johnson BRI, 2MASS, WISE, IRAC, IRAS, AKARI, ISO PHOT, Planck HFI, SPT, and GMRT. The SEDs were modelled with cigale to estimate their basic properties, in particular to constrain the masses of their total and VCD components. Although the galaxies’ dust masses are dominated by warmer dust, there are hints of VCD in two of the targets, NGC 7496 and NGC 7590.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 12, 2022
  2. Polymer composite films containing fillers comprising quasi-1D van der Waals materials, specifically transition metal trichalcogenides with 1D structural motifs that enable their exfoliation into bundles of atomic threads, are reported. These nanostructures are characterized by extremely large aspect ratios of up to ≈106. The polymer composites with low loadings of quasi-1D TaSe3 fillers (<3 vol%) reveal excellent electromagnetic interference shielding in the X-band GHz and extremely high frequency sub-THz frequency ranges, while remaining DC electrically insulating. The unique electromagnetic shielding characteristics of these films are attributed to effective coupling of the electromagnetic waves to the high-aspect-ratio electrically conductive TaSe3 atomic-threadmore »bundles even when the filler concentration is below the electrical percolation threshold. These novel films are promising for high-frequency communication technologies, which require electromagnetic shielding films that are flexible, lightweight, corrosion resistant, inexpensive, and electrically insulating.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 12, 2022
  3. All branches of ecology study relationships among and between environmental and biological variables. However, standard approaches to studying such relationships, based on correlation and regression, provide only some of the complex information contained in the relationships. Other statistical approaches exist that provide a complete description of relationships between variables, based on the concept of the *copula*; they are applied in finance, neuroscience and elsewhere, but rarely in ecology. We explore the concepts that underpin copulas and the potential for those concepts to improve our understanding of ecology. We find that informative copula structure in dependencies between variables is common acrossmore »all the environmental, species-trait, phenological, population, community, and ecosystem functioning datasets we considered. Many datasets exhibited asymmetric tail associations, whereby two variables were more strongly related in their left compared to right tails, or *vice versa*. We describe mechanisms by which observed copula structure and tail associations can arise in ecological data, including a Moran-like effect whereby dependence structures are inherited from environmental variables; and asymmetric or nonlinear influences of environments on ecological variables, such as under Liebig's law of the minimum. We also describe consequences of copula structure for ecological phenomena, including impacts on extinction risk, Taylor's law, and the temporal stability of ecosystem services. By documenting the importance of a complete description of dependence between variables, advancing conceptual frameworks, and demonstrating a powerful approach, we encourage widespread use of copulas in ecology, which we believe can benefit the discipline.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2022
  5. The rapid progress of droplet microfluidics and its wide range of applications have created a high demand for the mass fabrication of low-cost, high throughput droplet generator chips aiding both biomedical research and commercial usage. Existing polymer or glass based droplet generators have failed to successfully meet this demand which generates the need for the development of an alternate prototyping technique. This work reports the design, fabrication and characterization of a mass manufacturable thermoplastic based microfluidic droplet generator on cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). COC chips with feature size as low as 20 µm have been efficiently fabricated using injection moldingmore »technology leading to a high production of inexpensive droplet generators. The novelty of this work lies in reoptimising surface treatment and solvent bonding methods to produce closed COC microchannels with sufficiently hydrophobic (contact angle of 120°) surfaces. These COC based droplet generators were shown to generate stable monodisperse droplets at a rate of 1300 droplets/second in the dripping regime. These new mass manufacturable, disposable and cheap COC droplet generators can be custom designed to cater to the rapidly increasing biomedical and clinical applications of droplet microfluidics.« less
  6. Abstract The detection of a neutron star merger by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detectors, and the subsequent detection of an electromagnetic counterpart have opened a new era of transient astronomy. With upgrades to the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo detectors and new detectors coming online in Japan and India, neutron star mergers will be detected at a higher rate in the future, starting with the O3 observing run which will begin in early 2019. The detection of electromagnetic emission from these mergers provides vital information about merger parameters and allowsmore »independent measurement of the Hubble constant. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder is expected to become fully operational in early 2019, and its 30 deg 2 field of view will enable us to rapidly survey large areas of sky. In this work we explore prospects for detecting both prompt and long-term radio emission from neutron star mergers with Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and determine an observing strategy that optimises the use of telescope time. We investigate different strategies to tile the sky with telescope pointings in order to detect radio counterparts with limited observing time, using 475 simulated gravitational wave events. Our results show a significant improvement in observing efficiency when compared with a naïve strategy of covering the entire localisation above some confidence threshold, even when achieving the same total probability covered.« less
  7. S100A12 or Calgranulin C is a homodimeric antimicrobial protein of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. S100A12 is involved in many diseases like inflammation, tumor invasion, cancer and neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. The binding of transition metal ions to the protein is important as the sequestering of the metal ion induces conformational changes in the protein, inhibiting the growth of various pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, we probe the Cu(II) binding properties of Calgranulin C. We demonstrate that the two Cu(II) binding sites in Calgranulin C show different coordination environments in solution. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra ofmore »Cu(II)-bound protein clearly show two distinct components at higher Cu(II):protein ratios, which is indicative of the two different binding environments for the Cu(II) ions. The g|| and A|| values are also different for the two components, indicating that the number of directly coordinated nitrogens in each site differs. Furthermore, we perform Continuous Wave (CW)-titrations to obtain the binding affinity of the Ca(II)-loaded protein to Cu2+ ions. We observe a positive cooperativity in binding of the two Cu(II) ions. In order to further probe the Cu2+ coordination, we also perform Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) experiment. We perform ESEEM at two different fields where one Cu(II) binding site dominates over the other. At both sites we see distinct signatures of Cu(II)-histidine coordination. However, we clearly see that the ESEEM spectra corresponding to the two Cu2+ binding sites are significantly different. There is clear change in the intensity of the double quantum (DQ) peak with respect to the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) peak at the two different fields. Furthermore, ESEEM along with Hyperfine Sublevel Correlation (HYSCORE) show that only one of the two Cu(II) binding sites has backbone coordination, confirming our previous observation. Finally, we perform Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) spectroscopy to probe if the difference in binding environment is due to the Cu(II) binding to different sites in the protein. We obtain a distance distribution with a sharp peak at ~ 3 nm and a broad peak at ~ 4 nm. The shorter distance agrees with the Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance expected for a dimer from the crystal structure. The longer distance is consistent with the Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance when oligomerization occurs.« less