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  1. Abstract The search for neutrino events in correlation with 42 most intense fast radio bursts (FRBs) has been performed using the Borexino dataset from 05/2007 to 06/2021. We have searched for signals with visible energies above 250 keV within a time window of $$\pm \, 1000$$ ± 1000  s corresponding to detection time of a particular FRB. We also applied an alternative approach based on searching for specific shapes of neutrino-electron scattering spectra in the full exposure data of the Borexino detector. In particular, two incoming neutrino spectra were considered: the monoenergetic line and the spectrum expected from supernovae. The samemore »spectra were considered for electron antineutrinos detected through inverse beta-decay reaction. No statistically significant excess over the background was observed. As a result, the strongest upper limits on FRB-associated neutrino fluences of all flavors have been obtained in the 0.5–50 MeV neutrino energy range.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
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  4. Abstract Cosmogenic radio-nuclei are an important source of background for low-energy neutrino experiments. In Borexino, cosmogenic $$^{11}$$ 11 C decays outnumber solar pep and CNO neutrino events by about ten to one. In order to extract the flux of these two neutrino species, a highly efficient identification of this background is mandatory. We present here the details of the most consolidated strategy, used throughout Borexino solar neutrino measurements. It hinges upon finding the space-time correlations between $$^{11}$$ 11 C decays, the preceding parent muons and the accompanying neutrons. This article describes the working principles and evaluates the performance of thismore »Three-Fold Coincidence (TFC) technique in its two current implementations: a hard-cut and a likelihood-based approach. Both show stable performances throughout Borexino Phases II (2012–2016) and III (2016–2020) data sets, with a $$^{11}$$ 11 C tagging efficiency of $$\sim 90$$ ∼ 90  % and $$\sim $$ ∼  63–66 % of the exposure surviving the tagging. We present also a novel technique that targets specifically $$^{11}$$ 11 C produced in high-multiplicity during major spallation events. Such $$^{11}$$ 11 C appear as a burst of events, whose space-time correlation can be exploited. Burst identification can be combined with the TFC to obtain about the same tagging efficiency of $$\sim 90\%$$ ∼ 90 % but with a higher fraction of the exposure surviving, in the range of $$\sim $$ ∼  66–68 %.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Abstract Neutrinos emitted in the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen (CNO) fusion cycle in the Sun are a sub-dominant, yet crucial component of solar neutrinos whose flux has not been measured yet. The Borexino experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy) has a unique opportunity to detect them directly thanks to the detector’s radiopurity and the precise understanding of the detector backgrounds. We discuss the sensitivity of Borexino to CNO neutrinos, which is based on the strategies we adopted to constrain the rates of the two most relevant background sources, $$pep$$ pep neutrinos from the solar pp -chain and $$^{210}$$more »210 Bi beta decays originating in the intrinsic contamination of the liquid scintillator with $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb. Assuming the CNO flux predicted by the high-metallicity Standard Solar Model and an exposure of 1000 days $$\times $$ × 71.3 t, Borexino has a median sensitivity to CNO neutrino higher than 3 $$\sigma $$ σ . With the same hypothesis the expected experimental uncertainty on the CNO neutrino flux is 23%, provided the uncertainty on the independent estimate of the $$^{210}\text {Bi}$$ 210 Bi  interaction rate is 1.5 $$\hbox {cpd}/100~\hbox {ton}$$ cpd / 100 ton  . Finally, we evaluated the expected uncertainty of the C and N abundances and the expected discrimination significance between the high and low metallicity Standard Solar Models (HZ and LZ) with future more precise measurement of the CNO solar neutrino flux.« less
  6. Abstract Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) is often described by dispersion relations of the form E i 2  =  m i 2 + p i 2 +δ i,n E 2+n with delta different based on particle type i , with energy E , momentum p and rest mass m . Kinematics and energy thresholds of interactions are modified once the LIV terms become comparable to the squared masses of the particles involved. Thus, the strongest constraints on the LIV coefficients δ i,n tend to come from the highest energies. At sufficiently high energies, photons produced by cosmic ray interactions as theymore »propagate through the Universe could be subluminal and unattenuated over cosmological distances. Cosmic ray interactions can also be modified and lead to detectable fingerprints in the energy spectrum and mass composition observed on Earth. The data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory are therefore possibly sensitive to both the electromagnetic and hadronic sectors of LIV. In this article, we explore these two sectors by comparing the energy spectrum and the composition of cosmic rays and the upper limits on the photon flux from the Pierre Auger Observatory with simulations including LIV. Constraints on LIV parameters depend strongly on the mass composition of cosmic rays at the highest energies. For the electromagnetic sector, while no constraints can be obtained in the absence of protons beyond 10 19 eV, we obtain δ γ,0  > -10 -21 , δ γ,1  > -10 -40 eV -1 and δ γ,2  > -10 -58 eV -2 in the case of a subdominant proton component up to 10 20 eV. For the hadronic sector, we study the best description of the data as a function of LIV coefficients and we derive constraints in the hadronic sector such as δ had,0  < 10 -19 , δ had,1  < 10 -38 eV -1 and δ had,2  < 10 -57 eV -2 at 5σ CL.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  7. Abstract We present a measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum above 100 PeV using the part of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory that has a spacing of 750 m. An inflection of the spectrum is observed, confirming the presence of the so-called second-knee feature. The spectrum is then combined with that of the 1500 m array to produce a single measurement of the flux, linking this spectral feature with the three additional breaks at the highest energies. The combined spectrum, with an energy scale set calorimetrically via fluorescence telescopes and using a single detector type, results in the most statistically andmore »systematically precise measurement of spectral breaks yet obtained. These measurements are critical for furthering our understanding of the highest energy cosmic rays.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022