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  1. Abstract

    The early K-type T-Tauri star, V1298 Tau (V= 10 mag, age ≈ 20–30 Myr) hosts four transiting planets with radii ranging from 4.9 to 9.6R. The three inner planets have orbital periods of ≈8–24 days while the outer planet’s period is poorly constrained by single transits observed with K2 and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Planets b, c, and d are proto–sub-Neptunes that may be undergoing significant mass loss. Depending on the stellar activity and planet masses, they are expected to evolve into super-Earths/sub-Neptunes that bound the radius valley. Here we present results of a joint transit and radial velocity (RV) modeling analysis, which includes recently obtained TESS photometry and MAROON-X RV measurements. Assuming circular orbits, we obtain a low-significance (≈2σ) RV detection of planet c, implying a mass of19.88.9+9.3Mand a conservative 2σupper limit of <39M. For planets b and d, we derive 2σupper limits ofMb< 159MandMd< 41M, respectively. For planet e, plausible discrete periods ofPe> 55.4 days are ruled out at the 3σlevel while seven solutions with 43.3 <Pe/d< 55.4 are consistent with the most probable 46.768131 ± 000076 days solution within 3σ. Adopting the most probable solution yields a 2.6σRV detection with a mass of 0.66 ± 0.26MJup. Comparing the updated mass and radius constraints with planetary evolution and interior structure models shows that planets b, d, and e are consistent with predictions for young gas-rich planets and that planet c is consistent with having a water-rich core with a substantial (∼5% by mass) H2envelope.

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  2. Abstract

    We report on the discovery and validation of a transiting long-period mini-Neptune orbiting a bright (V= 9.0 mag) G dwarf (TOI 4633;R= 1.05R,M= 1.10M). The planet was identified in data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite by citizen scientists taking part in the Planet Hunters TESS project. Modelling of the transit events yields an orbital period of 271.9445 ± 0.0040 days and radius of 3.2 ± 0.20R. The Earth-like orbital period and an incident flux of1.560.16+0.20Fplaces it in the optimistic habitable zone around the star. Doppler spectroscopy of the system allowed us to place an upper mass limit on the transiting planet and revealed a non-transiting planet candidate in the system with a period of 34.15 ± 0.15 days. Furthermore, the combination of archival data dating back to 1905 with new high angular resolution imaging revealed a stellar companion orbiting the primary star with an orbital period of around 230 yr and an eccentricity of about 0.9. The long period of the transiting planet, combined with the high eccentricity and close approach of the companion star makes this a valuable system for testing the formation and stability of planets in binary systems.

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  3. Abstract

    With JWST’s successful deployment and unexpectedly high fuel reserves, measuring the masses of sub-Neptunes transiting bright, nearby stars will soon become the bottleneck for characterizing the atmospheres of small exoplanets via transmission spectroscopy. Using a carefully curated target list and observations from more than 2 yr of APF-Levy and Keck-HIRES Doppler monitoring, the TESS-Keck Survey is working toward alleviating this pressure. Here we present mass measurements for 11 transiting planets in eight systems that are particularly suited to atmospheric follow-up with JWST. We also report the discovery and confirmation of a temperate super-Jovian-mass planet on a moderately eccentric orbit. The sample of eight host stars, which includes one subgiant, spans early-K to late-F spectral types (Teff= 5200–6200 K). We homogeneously derive planet parameters using a joint photometry and radial velocity modeling framework, discuss the planets’ possible bulk compositions, and comment on their prospects for atmospheric characterization.

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  4. Abstract We present the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) discovery of the LHS 1678 (TOI-696) exoplanet system, comprised of two approximately Earth-sized transiting planets and a likely astrometric brown dwarf orbiting a bright ( V J = 12.5, K s = 8.3) M2 dwarf at 19.9 pc. The two TESS-detected planets are of radius 0.70 ± 0.04 R ⊕ and 0.98 ± 0.06 R ⊕ in 0.86 day and 3.69 day orbits, respectively. Both planets are validated and characterized via ground-based follow-up observations. High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher RV monitoring yields 97.7 percentile mass upper limits of 0.35 M ⊕ and 1.4 M ⊕ for planets b and c, respectively. The astrometric companion detected by the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory/Small and Moderate Aperture Telescope System 0.9 m has an orbital period on the order of decades and is undetected by other means. Additional ground-based observations constrain the companion to being a high-mass brown dwarf or smaller. Each planet is of unique interest; the inner planet has an ultra-short period, and the outer planet is in the Venus zone. Both are promising targets for atmospheric characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope and mass measurements via extreme-precision radial velocity. A third planet candidate of radius 0.9 ± 0.1 R ⊕ in a 4.97 day orbit is also identified in multicycle TESS data for validation in future work. The host star is associated with an observed gap in the lower main sequence of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. This gap is tied to the transition from partially to fully convective interiors in M dwarfs, and the effect of the associated stellar astrophysics on exoplanet evolution is currently unknown. The culmination of these system properties makes LHS 1678 a unique, compelling playground for comparative exoplanet science and understanding the formation and evolution of small, short-period exoplanets orbiting low-mass stars. 
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  5. Abstract The James Webb Space Telescope will be able to probe the atmospheres and surface properties of hot, terrestrial planets via emission spectroscopy. We identify 18 potentially terrestrial planet candidates detected by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) that would make ideal targets for these observations. These planet candidates cover a broad range of planet radii ( R p ∼ 0.6–2.0 R ⊕ ) and orbit stars of various magnitudes ( K s = 5.78–10.78, V = 8.4–15.69) and effective temperatures ( T eff ∼ 3000–6000 K). We use ground-based observations collected through the TESS Follow-up Observing Program (TFOP) and two vetting tools— DAVE and TRICERATOPS —to assess the reliabilities of these candidates as planets. We validate 13 planets: TOI-206 b, TOI-500 b, TOI-544 b, TOI-833 b, TOI-1075 b, TOI-1411 b, TOI-1442 b, TOI-1693 b, TOI-1860 b, TOI-2260 b, TOI-2411 b, TOI-2427 b, and TOI-2445 b. Seven of these planets (TOI-206 b, TOI-500 b, TOI-1075 b, TOI-1442 b, TOI-2260 b, TOI-2411 b, and TOI-2445 b) are ultra-short-period planets. TOI-1860 is the youngest (133 ± 26 Myr) solar twin with a known planet to date. TOI-2260 is a young (321 ± 96 Myr) G dwarf that is among the most metal-rich ([Fe/H] = 0.22 ± 0.06 dex) stars to host an ultra-short-period planet. With an estimated equilibrium temperature of ∼2600 K, TOI-2260 b is also the fourth hottest known planet with R p < 2 R ⊕ . 
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  6. null (Ed.)