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    Recent studies have suggested that red quasars are a phase in quasar evolution when feedback from black hole accretion evacuates obscuring gas from the nucleus of the host galaxy. Here, we report a direct link between dust-reddening and molecular outflows in quasars at z ∼ 2.5. By examining the dynamics of warm molecular gas in the inner region of galaxies, we find evidence for outflows with velocities 500–1000 km s−1 and time-scales of ≈0.1 Myr that are due to ongoing quasar energy output. We infer outflows only in systems where quasar radiation pressure on dust in the vicinity of the black hole is sufficiently large to expel their obscuring gas column densities. This result is in agreement with theoretical models that predict radiative feedback regulates gas in the nuclear regions of galaxies and is a major driving mechanism of galactic-scale outflows of cold gas. Our findings suggest that radiative quasar feedback ejects star-forming gas from within nascent stellar bulges at velocities comparable to those seen on larger scales, and that molecules survive in outflows even from the most luminous quasars.

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  2. Abstract We present a highly complete sample of broad-line (Type 1) QSOs out to z ∼ 3 selected by their mid-infrared colors, a method that is minimally affected by dust reddening. We remove host-galaxy emission from the spectra and fit for excess reddening in the residual QSOs, resulting in a Gaussian distribution of colors for unreddened (blue) QSOs, with a tail extending toward heavily reddened (red) QSOs, defined as having E ( B − V ) > 0.25. This radio-independent selection method enables us to compare red and blue QSO radio properties in both the FIRST (1.4 GHz) and VLASS (2–4 GHz) surveys. Consistent with recent results from optically selected QSOs from SDSS, we find that red QSOs have a significantly higher detection fraction and a higher fraction of compact radio morphologies at both frequencies. We employ radio stacking to investigate the median radio properties of the QSOs including those that are undetected in FIRST and VLASS, finding that red QSOs have significantly brighter radio emission and steeper radio spectral slopes compared with blue QSOs. Finally, we find that the incidence of red QSOs is strongly luminosity dependent, where red QSOs make up >40% of all QSOs at the highest luminosities. Overall, red QSOs comprise ∼40% of higher luminosity QSOs, dropping to only a few percent at lower luminosities. Furthermore, red QSOs make up a larger percentage of the radio-detected QSO population. We argue that dusty AGN-driven winds are responsible for both the obscuration as well as excess radio emission seen in red QSOs. 
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