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  1. Global airline networks play a key role in the global importation of emerging infectious diseases. Detailed information on air traffic between international airports has been demonstrated to be useful in retrospectively validating and prospectively predicting case emergence in other countries. In this paper, we use a well-established metric known as effective distance on the global air traffic data from IATA to quantify risk of emergence for different countries as a consequence of direct importation from China, and compare it against arrival times for the first 24 countries. Using this model trained on official first reports from WHO, we estimate time of arrival (ToA) for all other countries. We then incorporate data on airline suspensions to recompute the effective distance and assess the effect of such cancellations in delaying the estimated arrival time for all other countries. Finally we use the infectious disease vulnerability indices to explain some of the estimated reporting delays.
  2. Abstract

    Evolution of large‐scale and fine‐scale plasmaspheric plume density structures was examined using space‐ground coordinated observations of a plume during the 7–8 September 2015 storm. The large‐scale plasmaspheric plume density at Van Allen Probes A was roughly proportional to the total electron content (TEC) along the satellite footprint, indicating that TEC distribution represents the large‐scale plume density distribution in the magnetosphere. The plasmaspheric plume contained fine‐scale density structures and subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) velocity fluctuations. High‐resolution TEC data support the interpretation that the fine‐scale plume structures were blobs with ∼300 km size and ∼500–800 m/s in the ionosphere (∼3,000 km size and ∼5–8 km/s speed in the magnetosphere), emerging at the plume base and drifting to the plume. The short‐baseline Global Navigation Satellite System receivers detected smaller‐scale (∼10 km in the ionosphere, ∼100 km in the magnetosphere) TEC gradients and their sunward drift. Fine‐scale density structures were associated with enhanced phase scintillation index. Velocity fluctuations were found to be spatial structures of fine‐scale SAPS flows that drifted sunward with density irregularities down to ∼10 s of meter‐scale. Fine‐scale density structures followed a power law with a slope of ∼−5/3, and smaller‐scale density structures developed slower than the larger‐scale structures. We suggest that turbulent SAPS flows createdmore »fine‐scale density structures and their cascading to smaller scales. We also found that the plume fine‐scale density structures were associated with whistler‐mode intensity modulation, and localized electron precipitation in the plume. Structured precipitation in the plume may contribute to ionospheric heating, SAPS velocity reduction, and conductance enhancements.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  5. A bstract The first measurement of the top quark pair ( $$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$ t t ¯ ) production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 . 6 TeV is presented. Data recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in Summer 2022, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 . 21 fb − 1 , are analyzed. Events are selected with one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons) and additional jets. A maximum likelihood fit is performed in event categories defined by the number and flavors of the leptons, the number of jets, and the number of jets identified as originating from b quarks. An inclusive $$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$ t t ¯ production cross section of 881 ± 23 (stat + syst) ± 20 (lumi) pb is measured, in agreement with the standard model prediction of $$ {924}_{-40}^{+32} $$ 924 − 40 + 32 pb.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024