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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Application of massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems to frequency division duplex (FDD) is challenging mainly due to the considerable overhead required for downlink training and feedback. Channel extrapolation, i.e., estimating the channel response at the downlink frequency band based on measurements in the disjoint uplink band, is a promising solution to overcome this bottleneck. This paper presents measurement campaigns obtained by using a wideband (350 MHz) channel sounder at 3.5 GHz composed of a calibrated 64 element antenna array, in both an anechoic chamber and outdoor environment. The Space Alternating Generalized Expectation-Maximization (SAGE) algorithm was used to extract the parametersmore »(amplitude, delay, and angular information) of the multipath components from the attained channel data within the “training” (uplink) band. The channel in the downlink band is then reconstructed based on these path parameters. The performance of the extrapolated channel is evaluated in terms of mean squared error (MSE) and reduction of beamforming gain (RBG) in comparison to the “ground truth”, i.e., the measured channel at the downlink frequency. We find strong sensitivity to calibration errors and model mismatch, and also find that performance depends on propagation conditions: LOS performs significantly better than NLOS.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Abstract We present a measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum above 100 PeV using the part of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory that has a spacing of 750 m. An inflection of the spectrum is observed, confirming the presence of the so-called second-knee feature. The spectrum is then combined with that of the 1500 m array to produce a single measurement of the flux, linking this spectral feature with the three additional breaks at the highest energies. The combined spectrum, with an energy scale set calorimetrically via fluorescence telescopes and using a single detector type, results in the most statistically andmore »systematically precise measurement of spectral breaks yet obtained. These measurements are critical for furthering our understanding of the highest energy cosmic rays.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  5. The ratio of the electric to magnetic form factors of the proton, μpGEp/GMp, has been measured for elastic electron-proton scattering with polarized beam and target up to four-momentum transfer squared Q2=5.66(GeV/c)2 using double spin asymmetry for target spin orientation aligned nearly perpendicular to the beam momentum direction. This measurement of μpGEp/GMp agrees with the Q2 dependence of previous recoil polarization data and reconfirms the discrepancy at high Q2 between the Rosenbluth and the polarization-transfer method with a different measurement technique and systematic uncertainties uncorrelated to those of the recoil-polarization measurements. The form factor ratio at Q2=2.06(GeV/c)2 has been measured asmore »μpGEp/GMp=0.720±0.176stat±0.039sys, which is in agreement with an earlier measurement using the polarized target technique at similar kinematics. The form factor ratio at Q2=5.66(GeV/c)2 has been determined as μpGEp/GMp=0.244±0.353stat±0.013sys, which represents the highest Q2 measurement reached using double spin asymmetries with polarized target to date.« less