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  1. Abstract The metallicity and gas density dependence of interstellar depletions, the dust-to-gas (D/G), and dust-to-metal (D/M) ratios have important implications for how accurately we can trace the chemical enrichment of the universe, either by using FIR dust emission as a tracer of the ISM or by using spectroscopy of damped Ly α systems to measure chemical abundances over a wide range of redshifts. We collect and compare large samples of depletion measurements in the Milky Way (MW), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) ( Z = 0.5 Z ⊙ ), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) ( Z = 0.2 Z ⊙ ). The relations between the depletions of different elements do not strongly vary between the three galaxies, implying that abundance ratios should trace depletions accurately down to 20% solar metallicity. From the depletions, we derive D/G and D/M. The D/G increases with density, consistent with the more efficient accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains in the denser ISM. For log N (H) > 21 cm −2 , the depletion of metallicity tracers (S, Zn) exceeds −0.5 dex, even at 20% solar metallicity. The gas fraction of metals increases from the MW to the LMC (factor 3) and SMC (factor 6),more »compensating for the reduction in total heavy element abundances and resulting in those three galaxies having the same neutral gas-phase metallicities. The D/G derived from depletions are respective factors of 2 (LMC) and 5 (SMC) higher than the D/G derived from FIR, 21 cm, and CO emission, likely due to the combined uncertainties on the dust FIR opacity and on the depletion of carbon and oxygen.« less