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  1. Widespread testing and isolation of infected patients is a cornerstone of viral outbreak management, as underscored during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report a large-area and label-free testing platform that combines surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and machine learning for the rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2. Spectroscopic signatures acquired from virus samples on metal–insulator–metal nanostructures, fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and transfer printing, can provide test results within 25 min. Not only can our technique accurately distinguish between different respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses, but it can also detect virus signatures in physiologically relevant matrices such as human saliva without any additional sample preparation. Furthermore, our large area nanopatterning approach allows sensors to be fabricated on flexible surfaces allowing them to be mounted on any surface or used as wearables. We envision that our versatile and portable label-free spectroscopic platform will offer an important tool for virus detection and future outbreak preparedness.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 29, 2023