skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Graham, M."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.


    Intertidal mussels (Mytilus spp.) and their benthic invertebrate predators were monitored annually for 25 years at 10 sites within Lough Hyne Marine Reserve in southwest Ireland. Mussel abundance was relatively low in the early 1990s but increased substantially after the cold winter of 1995/1996. High mussel abundance was maintained until 2014 after which there was an abrupt decline leading to low levels in 2015–2019, when populations were dominated by older size-classes. Recruitment on benthic rock surfaces in 2018 and 2019 was low in contrast to that on an isolated mooring rope in deep water, suggesting mortality of recruits (e.g. from predation or benthic hypoxia). The generalist predatory starfish, Marthasterias glacialis, increased substantially during the study, with population peaks in 2005 and 2009 that mirrored the peaks of mussel populations. Predatory dogwhelks were not abundant at the monitoring sites and were never seen associated with mussels. Predators or other physical factors may have reduced recruitment, but the decline of the mussel population probably reflected increasing age and removal by wave action combined with consistently sparse recruitment.

    more » « less
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. High viral tolerance coupled with an extraordinary regulation of the immune response makes bats a great model to study host-pathogen evolution. Although many immune-related gene gains and losses have been previously reported in bats, important gene families such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remain understudied. We built an exhaustive bioinformatic pipeline targeting the major gene families of defensins and cathelicidins to explore AMP diversity and analyze their evolution and distribution across six bat families. A combination of manual and automated procedures identified 29 AMP families across queried species, with α-, β-defensins, and cathelicidins representing around 10% of AMP diversity. Gene duplications were inferred in both α-defensins, which were absent in five species, and three β-defensin gene subfamilies, but cathelicidins did not show significant shifts in gene family size and were absent inAnoura caudiferand the pteropodids. Based on lineage-specific gains and losses, we propose diet and diet-related microbiome evolution may determine the evolution of α- and β-defensins gene families and subfamilies. These results highlight the importance of building species-specific libraries for genome annotation in non-model organisms and shed light on possible drivers responsible for the rapid evolution of AMPs. By focusing on these understudied defenses, we provide a robust framework for explaining bat responses to pathogens.

    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 26, 2024

    Extragalactic fast X-ray transients (FXTs) are a class of soft (0.3–10 keV) X-ray transients lasting a few hundred seconds to several hours. Several progenitor mechanisms have been suggested to produce FXTs, including supernova shock breakouts, binary neutron star mergers, or tidal disruptions involving an intermediate-mass black hole and a white dwarf. We present detailed host studies, including spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of seven XMM-Newton-discovered FXTs. The candidate hosts lie at redshifts 0.0928 <z < 0.645 implying peak X-ray luminosities of 1043 erg s−1<LX < 1045 erg s−1 and physical offsets of 1 kpc < rproj < 22 kpc. These observations increase the number of FXTs with a spectroscopic redshift measurement by a factor of 2, although we note that one event is re-identified as a Galactic flare star. We infer host star formation rates and stellar masses by fitting the combined spectroscopic and archival photometric data. We also report on a contemporaneous optical counterpart search to the FXTs in Pan-STARRS and ATLAS by performing forced photometry at the position of the FXTs. We do not find any counterpart in our search. Given our constraints, including peak X-ray luminosities, optical limits, and host properties, we find that XRT 110 621 is consistent with an supernova shock breakout (SN SBO) event. Spectroscopic redshifts of likely host galaxies for four events imply peak X-ray luminosities that are too high to be consistent with SN SBOs, but we are unable to discard either the binary neutron star or white dwarf–intermediate-mass black hole tidal disruption event scenarios for these FXTs.

    more » « less

    We present second epoch optical spectra for 30 changing-look (CL) candidates found by searching for Type-1 optical variability in a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) spectroscopically classified as Type 2. We use a random-forest-based light-curve classifier and spectroscopic follow-up, confirming 50 per cent of candidates as turning-on CLs. In order to improve this selection method and to better understand the nature of the not-confirmed CL candidates, we perform a multiwavelength variability analysis including optical, mid-infrared (MIR), and X-ray data, and compare the results from the confirmed and not-confirmed CLs identified in this work. We find that most of the not-confirmed CLs are consistent with weak Type 1s dominated by host-galaxy contributions, showing weaker optical and MIR variability. On the contrary, the confirmed CLs present stronger optical fluctuations and experience a long (from five to ten years) increase in their MIR fluxes and the colour W1–W2 over time. In the 0.2–2.3 keV band, at least four out of 11 CLs with available SRG/eROSITA detections have increased their flux in comparison with archival upper limits. These common features allow us to select the most promising CLs from our list of candidates, leading to nine sources with similar multiwavelength photometric properties to our CL sample. The use of machine learning algorithms with optical and MIR light curves will be very useful to identify CLs in future large-scale surveys.

    more » « less
  7. In WSe2 intense THz fields are found to enhance transmission at 400 nm, while reducing it at 800 nm. The differential transmission is proportional to the field amplitude. The nonlinear responses are fast, yet non-adiabatic. 
    more » « less