skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Graham, M."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Biodiversity is in crisis, and insects are no exception. To understand insect population and community trends globally, it is necessary to identify and synthesize diverse datasets representing different taxa, regions, and habitats. The relevant literature is, however, vast and challenging to aggregate. The Entomological Global Evidence Map (EntoGEM) project is a systematic effort to search for and catalogue studies with long-term data that can be used to understand changes in insect abundance and diversity. Here, we present the overall EntoGEM framework and results of the first completed subproject of the systematic map, which compiled sources of information about changes inmore »dragonfly and damselfly (Odonata) occurrence, abundance, biomass, distribution, and diversity. We identified 45 multi-year odonate datasets, including 10 studies with data that span more than 10 years. If data from each study could be gathered or extracted, these studies could contribute to analyses of long-term population trends of this important group of indicator insects. The methods developed to support the EntoGEM project, and its framework for synthesizing a vast literature, have the potential to be applied not only to other broad topics in ecology and conservation, but also to other areas of research where data are widely distributed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 13, 2023
  2. Relationships among laurasiatherian clades represent one of the most highly disputed topics in mammalian phylogeny. In this study, we attempt to disentangle laurasiatherian interordinal relationships using two independent genome-level approaches: (1) quantifying retrotransposon presence/absence patterns, and (2) comparisons of exon datasets at the levels of nucleotides and amino acids. The two approaches revealed contradictory phylogenetic signals, possibly due to a high level of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting. The positions of Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera as the first and second earliest divergences were consistent across the approaches. However, the phylogenetic relationships of Perissodactyla, Cetartiodactyla, and Ferae, were contradictory. While retrotransposon insertion analysesmore »suggest a clade with Cetartiodactyla and Ferae, the exon dataset favoured Cetartiodactyla and Perissodactyla. Future analyses of hitherto unsampled laurasiatherian lineages and synergistic analyses of retrotransposon insertions, exon and conserved intron/intergenic sequences might unravel the conflicting patterns of relationships in this major mammalian clade.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  3. ABSTRACT The observed diversity in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) – the thermonuclear explosions of carbon–oxygen white dwarf stars used as cosmological standard candles – is currently met with a variety of explosion models and progenitor scenarios. To help improve our understanding of whether and how often different models contribute to the occurrence of SNe Ia and their assorted properties, we present a comprehensive analysis of seven nearby SNe Ia. We obtained one to two epochs of optical spectra with Gemini Observatory during the nebular phase (>200 d past peak) for each of these events, all of which had time series of photometry andmore »spectroscopy at early times (the first ∼8 weeks after explosion). We use the combination of early- and late-time observations to assess the predictions of various models for the explosion (e.g. double-detonation, off-centre detonation, stellar collisions), progenitor star (e.g. ejecta mass, metallicity), and binary companion (e.g. another white dwarf or a non-degenerate star). Overall, we find general consistency in our observations with spherically symmetric models for SN Ia explosions, and with scenarios in which the binary companion is another degenerate star. We also present an in-depth analysis of SN 2017fzw, a member of the subgroup of SNe Ia which appear to be transitional between the subluminous ‘91bg-like’ events and normal SNe Ia, and for which nebular-phase spectra are rare.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2023
  4. Controversial understandings of the coronavirus pandemic have turned data visualizations into a battleground. Defying public health officials, coronavirus skeptics on US social media spent much of 2020 creating data visualizations showing that the government’s pandemic response was excessive and that the crisis was over. This paper investigates how pandemic visualizations circulated on social media, and shows that people who mistrust the scientific establishment often deploy the same rhetorics of data-driven decision-making used by experts, but to advocate for radical policy changes. Using a quantitative analysis of how visualizations spread on Twitter and an ethnographic approach to analyzing conversations about COVIDmore »data on Facebook, we document an epistemological gap that leads pro- and anti-mask groups to draw drastically different inferences from similar data. Ultimately, we argue that the deployment of COVID data visualizations reflect a deeper sociopolitical rift regarding the place of science in public life.« less
  5. Abstract We present deep Chandra X-ray observations of two nearby Type Ia supernovae, SN 2017cbv and SN 2020nlb, which reveal no X-ray emission down to a luminosity L X ≲ 5.3 × 10 37 and ≲ 5.4 × 10 37 erg s −1 (0.3–10 keV), respectively, at ∼16–18 days after the explosion. With these limits, we constrain the pre-explosion mass-loss rate of the progenitor system to be M ̇ < 7.2 × 10 −9 and < 9.7 × 10 −9 M ⊙ yr −1 for each (at a wind velocity v w = 100 km s −1 and a radiusmore »of R ≈ 10 16 cm), assuming any X-ray emission would originate from inverse Compton emission from optical photons upscattered by the supernova shock. If the supernova environment was a constant-density medium, we would find a number density limit of n CSM < 36 and < 65 cm −3 , respectively. These X-ray limits rule out all plausible symbiotic progenitor systems, as well as large swathes of parameter space associated with the single degenerate scenario, such as mass loss at the outer Lagrange point and accretion winds. We also present late-time optical spectroscopy of SN 2020nlb, and set strong limits on any swept up hydrogen ( L H α < 2.7 × 10 37 erg s −1 ) and helium ( L He, λ 6678 < 2.7 × 10 37 erg s −1 ) from a nondegenerate companion, corresponding to M H ≲ 0.7–2 × 10 −3 M ⊙ and M He ≲ 4 × 10 −3 M ⊙ . Radio observations of SN 2020nlb at 14.6 days after explosion also yield a non-detection, ruling out most plausible symbiotic progenitor systems. While we have doubled the sample of normal Type Ia supernovae with deep X-ray limits, more observations are needed to sample the full range of luminosities and subtypes of these explosions, and set statistical constraints on their circumbinary environments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  6. Abstract The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada, Reno, installed eight temporary seismic stations following the 15 May 2020 Mww 6.5 Monte Cristo Range earthquake. The mainshock and resulting aftershock sequence occurred in an unpopulated and sparsely instrumented region of the Mina deflection in the central Walker Lane, approximately 55 km west of Tonopah, Nevada. The temporary stations supplement NSL’s permanent seismic network, providing azimuthal coverage and near-field recording of the aftershock sequence beginning 1–3 days after the mainshock. We expect the deployment to remain in the field until May 2021. NSL initially attempted to acquire the Monte Cristomore »Range deployment data in real time via cellular telemetry; however, unreliable cellular coverage forced NSL to convert to microwave telemetry within the first week of the sequence to achieve continuous real-time acquisition. Through 31 August 2020, the temporary deployment has captured near-field records of three aftershocks ML≥5 and 25 ML 4–4.9 events. Here, we present details regarding the Monte Cristo Range deployment, instrumentation, and waveform availability. We combine this information with waveform availability and data access details from NSL’s permanent seismic network and partner regional seismic networks to create a comprehensive summary of Monte Cristo Range sequence data. NSL’s Monte Cristo Range temporary and permanent station waveform data are available in near-real time via the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. Derived earthquake products, including NSL’s earthquake catalog and phase picks, are available via the Advanced National Seismic System Comprehensive Earthquake Catalog. The temporary deployment improved catalog completeness and location quality for the Monte Cristo Range sequence. We expect these data to be useful for continued study of the Monte Cristo Range sequence and constraining crustal and seismogenic properties of the Mina deflection and central Walker Lane.« less
  7. The salicylate method is one of the ammonia quantification methods that has been extensively used in literature for quantifying ammonia in the emerging field of nitrogen (electro)fixation. The presence of iron in the sample causes a strong negative interference on the salicylate method. Today, the recommended method to deal with such interferences is the experimental correction method: the iron concentration in the sample is measured using an iron quantification method, and then the corresponding amount of iron is added to the calibration samples. The limitation of this method is that when a batch of samples presents a great iron concentrationmore »variability, a different calibration curve has to be obtained for each sample. In this work, the interference of iron III on the salicylate method was experimentally quantified, and a model was proposed to capture the effect of iron III interference on the ammonia quantification result. This model can be used to correct the iron III interferences on ammonia quantification. The great advantage of this correction method is that it only requires three experimental curves in order to correct the iron III interference in any sample provided the iron III concentration is below the total peak suppression concentration.

    « less