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  1. This Work-In-Progress paper seeks to continue the development of a framework with which to organize engineering ethics instructional approaches. We build on a recent coding framework that was developed as part of a systematic review of US post-secondary engineering ethics education literature. We apply and iterate on the framework by analyzing the 2016 National Academy of Engineering report, “Infusing Ethics into the Development of Engineers: Exemplary Education Activities and Programs,” which includes two-page synopses of 25 exemplary ethics programs. By applying the framework to these exemplars, we aim to identify prominent instructional approaches utilized across NAE exemplars and the extentmore »to which NAE exemplars’ instructional approaches differ from those identified in the prior systematic review. This WIP has three preliminary outcomes: (1) identification of trends in instructional design approaches across the NAE exemplars, (2) comparison of the instructional design approaches of NAE exemplars with the prior systematic review, and (3) identification of next steps needed to develop a more holistic picture of how ethics is taught in US post-secondary engineering contexts. Example revisions to the coding framework involved combining community-engagement and real-world exposure, broadening micro-insertion to sociotechnical integration, and coding for explicit mentoring components of instruction. A future research step involves further specification of these codes to detail how the NAE exemplars applied select instructional approaches, including heuristics, ethical theories, and case studies, and real-world engagement.« less
  2. Over the past decade, the trade of counterfeit goods has increased. This has been enabled by advancements in low-cost digital printing methods (e.g., inkjet and laserjet) that are an asset for counterfeit production methods. However, each printing method produces characteristic printed features that can be used to identify not only the printing method, but also, uniquely identify the specific make and model of printer. This knowledge can be used for determination of whether or not the analyzed item is counterfeit. During the first phase of this research, chemical and physical analyses were performed on printed documents and ink samples formore »two types of digital printing: inkjet and laserjet. The results showed that it is possible to identify the digital method used to print a document by its unique features. Physical analysis revealed that the laserjet prints have a higher image quality characterized by sharper feature edge quality, brighter image area, and a thicker ink layer (10 micron average thickness) than in inkjet documents. Chemical analysis showed that the inkjet and laserjet inks could easily be distinguished by identifying the various ink components. Ink jet inks included (among others) water, ethylene glycol while laserjet inks presented styrene, methacrylate, and sulfide compounds.« less
  3. Ethical becoming represents a novel framework for teaching engineering ethics. This framework insists on the complementarity of pragmatism, care, and virtue. The dispositional nature of the self is a central concern, as are relational considerations. However, unlike previous conceptual work, this paper introduces additional lenses for exploring ethical relationality by focusing on indebtedness, harmony, potency, and reflective thought. This paper first reviews relevant contributions in the engineering ethics literature. Then, the relational process ontology of Alfred North Whitehead is described and identified as the foundation of the ethical becoming concept. Following this, ethical becoming is imagined as comprising five components:more »relationality and indebtedness, harmony and potency (i.e., beauty), care, freedom and reflective thought, and ethical inquiry. Each component will be unpacked and knit together to argue that (1) becoming in all its forms is relational and, therefore, whatever becomes is indebted to all to which it relates; (2) one’s ethical engagement must be directed toward the creation of harmony and potency; (3) care practices are necessary to ensure that multiplicity is valued and safeguarded in the meeting of needs; (4) the capacity for reflective thought is necessary to fashion one’s self and others in the direction of harmony, potency, and care; and (5) ethical thought and action must operate through a cycle of ethical inquiry. This paper will close with a brief exploration of how ethical becoming could be utilized in engineering education contexts.« less
  4. Quenching and partitioning (Q&P) processing of third-generation advanced high strength steels generates multiphase microstructures containing metastable retained austenite. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation of retained austenite improves strength and ductility by increasing instantaneous strain hardening rates. This paper explores the influence of martensitic transformation and strain hardening on tensile performance. Tensile tests were performed on steels with nominally similar compositions and microstructures (11.3 to 12.6 vol. pct retained austenite and 16.7 to 23.4 vol. pct ferrite) at 980 and 1180 MPa ultimate tensile strength levels. For each steel, tensile performance was generally consistent along different orientations in the sheet relative to themore »rolling direction, but a greater amount of austenite transformation occurred during uniform elongation along the rolling direction. Neither the amount of retained austenite prior to straining nor the total amount of retained austenite transformed during straining could be directly correlated to tensile performance. It is proposed that stability of retained austenite, rather than austenite volume fraction, greatly influences strain hardening rate, and thus controls strength and ductility. If true, this suggests that tailoring austenite stability is critical for optimizing the forming response and crash performance of quenched and partitioned grades.« less
  5. Abstract Despite awareness of the mutations conferring insecticide resistance in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), within the United States few studies address the distribution and frequency of these. Within the United States, studies have focused on collections made along the East Coast and Midwest, documenting the occurrence of two mutations (V419L and L925I) within the voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit gene shown to be associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids. Here, the distribution and frequency of the V419L and L925I site variants is reported from infestations sampled within Oklahoma and its immediately adjacent states. Additionally, the presencemore »of a mutation previously undocumented in the United States (I935F) is noted. While novel in the United States, this mutation has previously been reported in Australian and Old World populations. No infestations were found to harbor wild-type individuals, and hence susceptible, at each of the three sites. Instead, ~21% were found to possess the resistant mutation at the L925I site (haplotype B), ~77% had mutations at both the V419L and L925I sites (haplotype C), and 2% possessed the mutation at the L936F site (haplotype Ab). The high frequency of haplotype C corresponds to previous studies in the United States, and contrasts dramatically with those of the Old World and Australia. The data presented here provide insight into the contemporary occurrence of kdr-associated insecticide resistance in the South Central United States, a region for which data have previously been absent. These data suggest that New World and Old World/Australian infestations are likely to have originated from different origins.« less