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  1. Abstract

    One of the most fundamental baryonic matter components of galaxies is the neutral atomic hydrogen (Hi). At low redshifts, this component can be traced directly through the 21 cm transition, but to infer the Higas content of the most distant galaxies, a viable tracer is needed. We here investigate the fidelity of the fine-structure transition of the (2P3/22P1/3) transition of singly ionized carbon Ciiat 158μm as a proxy for Hiin a set simulated galaxies atz≈ 6, following the work by Heintz et al. We select 11,125 star-forming galaxies from thesimbasimulations, with far-infrared line emissions postprocessed and modeled within the Sigameframework. We find a strong connection between Ciiand Hi, with the relation between this Cii-to-Hirelation (β[CII]) being anticorrelated with the gas-phase metallicity of the simulated galaxies. We further use these simulations to make predictions for the total baryonic matter content of galaxies atz≈ 6, and specifically the Higas mass fraction. We find mean values ofMH I/M= 1.4 andMH I/Mbar,tot= 0.45. These results provide strong evidence for Hibeing the dominant baryonic matter component by mass in galaxies atz≈ 6.

  2. Abstract We present an update to the framework called Simulator of Galaxy Millimeter/submillimeter Emission ( sígame ). sígame derives line emission in the far-infrared (FIR) for galaxies in particle-based cosmological hydrodynamics simulations by applying radiative transfer and physics recipes via a postprocessing step after completion of the simulation. In this version, a new technique is developed to model higher gas densities by parameterizing the probability distribution function (PDF) of the gas density in higher-resolution simulations run with the pseudo-Lagrangian, Voronoi mesh code arepo . The parameterized PDFs are used as a look-up table, and reach higher densities than in previous work. sígame v3 is tested on redshift z = 0 galaxies drawn from the simba cosmological simulation for eight FIR emission lines tracing vastly different phases of the interstellar medium. This version of sígame includes dust radiative transfer with S kirt and high-resolution photoionization models with C loudy , the latter sampled according to the density PDF of the arepo simulations to augment the densities in the cosmological simulation. The quartile distributions of the predicted line luminosities overlap with the observed range for nearby galaxies of similar star formation rate (SFR) for all but two emission lines: [O i ]63more »and CO(3–2), which are overestimated by median factors of 1.3 and 1.0 dex, respectively, compared to the observed line–SFR relation of mixed-type galaxies. We attribute the remaining disagreement with observations to the lack of precise attenuation of the interstellar light on sub-grid scales (≲200 pc) and differences in sample selection.« less
  3. ABSTRACT

    The protocluster SPT2349−56 at $z = 4.3$ contains one of the most actively star-forming cores known, yet constraints on the total stellar mass of this system are highly uncertain. We have therefore carried out deep optical and infrared observations of this system, probing rest-frame ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths. Using the positions of the spectroscopically confirmed protocluster members, we identify counterparts and perform detailed source deblending, allowing us to fit spectral energy distributions in order to estimate stellar masses. We show that the galaxies in SPT2349−56 have stellar masses proportional to their high star formation rates, consistent with other protocluster galaxies and field submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) around redshift 4. The galaxies in SPT2349−56 have on average lower molecular gas-to-stellar mass fractions and depletion time-scales than field SMGs, although with considerable scatter. We construct the stellar-mass function for SPT2349−56 and compare it to the stellar-mass function of $z = 1$ galaxy clusters, finding consistent shapes between the two. We measure rest-frame galaxy ultraviolet half-light radii from our HST-F160W imaging, finding that on average the galaxies in our sample are similar in size to typical star-forming galaxies at these redshifts. However, the brightest HST-detected galaxy in our sample, found near the luminosity-weightedmore »centre of the protocluster core, remains unresolved at this wavelength. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that the core galaxies will quickly merge into a brightest cluster galaxy, thus our observations provide a direct view of the early formation mechanisms of this class of object.

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  4. Abstract

    The SPT 0311–58 system atz= 6.900 is an extremely massive structure within the reionization epoch and offers a chance to understand the formation of galaxies at an extreme peak in the primordial density field. We present 70 mas Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum and [Cii] 158μm emission in the central pair of galaxies and reach physical resolutions of ∼100–350 pc, among the most detailed views of any reionization-era system to date. The observations resolve the source into at least a dozen kiloparsec-size clumps. The global kinematics and high turbulent velocity dispersion within the galaxies present a striking contrast to recent claims of dynamically cold thin-disk kinematics in some dusty galaxies just 800 Myr later atz∼ 4. We speculate that both gravitational interactions and fragmentation from massive parent disks have likely played a role in the overall dynamics and formation of clumps in the system. Each clump individually is comparable in mass to other 6 <z< 8 galaxies identified in rest-UV/optical deep field surveys, but with star formation rates elevated by a factor of ~3-5. Internally, the clumps themselves bear close resemblance to greatly scaled-up versions of virialized cloud-scale structures identified in low-redshift galaxies. Our observationsmore »are qualitatively similar to the chaotic and clumpy assembly within massive halos seen in simulations of high-redshift galaxies.

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  5. ABSTRACT We present APEX-LABOCA 870-μm observations of the fields surrounding the nine brightest high-redshift unlensed objects discovered in the South Pole Telescope’s (SPT) 2500 deg2 survey. Initially seen as point sources by SPT’s 1-arcmin beam, the 19-arcsec resolution of our new data enables us to deblend these objects and search for submillimetre (submm) sources in the surrounding fields. We find a total of 98 sources above a threshold of 3.7σ in the observed area of 1300 arcmin2, where the bright central cores resolve into multiple components. After applying a radial cut to our LABOCA sources to achieve uniform sensitivity and angular size across each of the nine fields, we compute the cumulative and differential number counts and compare them to estimates of the background, finding a significant overdensity of $\delta \, {\approx }\,$10 at $S_{870}= 14$ mJy. The large overdensities of bright submm sources surrounding these fields suggest that they could be candidate protoclusters undergoing massive star formation events. Photometric and spectroscopic redshifts of the unlensed central objects range from $z= $3 to 7, implying a volume density of star-forming protoclusters of approximately 0.1 Gpc−3. If the surrounding submm sources in these fields are at the same redshifts as the central objects, then themore »total star formation rates of these candidate protoclusters reach 10 000 M⊙ yr−1, making them much more active at these redshifts than seen so far in either simulations or observations.« less
  6. ABSTRACT We present an extensive ALMA spectroscopic follow-up programme of the $z\, {=}\, 4.3$ structure SPT2349–56, one of the most actively star-forming protocluster cores known, to identify additional members using their [C ii] 158 μm and CO(4–3) lines. In addition to robustly detecting the 14 previously published galaxies in this structure, we identify a further 15 associated galaxies at $z\, {=}\, 4.3$, resolving 55$\, {\pm }\,$5 per cent of the 870 μm flux density at 0.5 arcsec resolution compared to 21 arcsec single-dish data. These galaxies are distributed into a central core containing 23 galaxies extending out to 300 kpc in diameter, and a northern extension, offset from the core by 400 kpc, containing three galaxies. We discovered three additional galaxies in a red Herschel-SPIRE source 1.5 Mpc from the main structure, suggesting the existence of many other sources at the same redshift as SPT2349–56 that are not yet detected in the limited coverage of our data. An analysis of the velocity distribution of the central galaxies indicates that this region may be virialized with a mass of (9$\pm 5)\, {\times }\, 10^{12}$  M⊙, while the two offset galaxy groups are about 30 and 60 per cent less massive and show significant velocity offsets from the central group. We calculate the [C ii] andmore »far-infrared number counts, and find evidence for a break in the [C ii] luminosity function. We estimate the average SFR density within the region of SPT2349–56 containing single-dish emission (a proper diameter of 720 kpc), assuming spherical symmetry, to be roughly 4$\, {\times }\, 10^4$ M⊙ yr−1 Mpc−3; this may be an order of magnitude greater than the most extreme examples seen in simulations.« less
  7. Of the almost 40 star-forming galaxies at z≳ 5 (not counting quasi-stellar objects) observed in [{{C}} {{II}}] to date, nearly half are either very faint in [{{C}} {{II}}] or not detected at all, and fall well below expectations based on locally derived relations between star formation rate and [{{C}} {{II}}] luminosity. This has raised questions as to how reliable [{{C}} {{II}}] is as a tracer of star formation activity at these epochs and how factors such as metallicity might affect the [{{C}} {{II}}] emission. Combining cosmological zoom simulations of galaxies with SÍGAME (SImulator of GAlaxy Millimeter/submillimeter Emission), we modeled the multiphased interstellar medium (ISM) and its emission in [{{C}} {{II}}], as well as in [O I] and [O III], from 30 main-sequence galaxies at z≃ 6 with star formation rates ˜3-23 {M}⊙ {yr}}-1, stellar masses ˜ (0.7{--}8)× {10}9 {M}⊙ , and metallicities ˜ (0.1{--}0.4)× {Z}⊙ . The simulations are able to reproduce the aforementioned [{{C}} {{II}}] faintness of some normal star-forming galaxy sources at z≥slant 5. In terms of [O I] and [O III], very few observations are available at z≳ 5, but our simulations match two of the three existing z≳ 5 detections of [O III] and are furthermoremore »roughly consistent with the [O I] and [O III] luminosity relations with star formation rate observed for local starburst galaxies. We find that the [{{C}} {{II}}] emission is dominated by the diffuse ionized gas phase and molecular clouds, which on average contribute ˜66% and ˜27%, respectively. The molecular gas, which constitutes only ˜ 10 % of the total gas mass, is thus a more efficient emitter of [{{C}} {{II}}] than the ionized gas, which makes up ˜85% of the total gas mass. A principal component analysis shows that the [{{C}} {{II}}] luminosity correlates with the star formation activity of a galaxy as well as its average metallicity. The low metallicities of our simulations together with their low molecular gas mass fractions can account for their [{{C}} {{II}}] faintness, and we suggest that these factors may also be responsible for the [{{C}} {{II}}]-faint normal galaxies observed at these early epochs.« less