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Creators/Authors contains: "Grigoropoulos, Costas P."

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  1. Abstract

    Recent advancements in manufacturing, finite element analysis (FEA), and optimization techniques have expanded the design possibilities for metamaterials, including isotropic and auxetic structures, known for applications like energy absorption due to their unique deformation mechanism and consistent behavior under varying loads. However, achieving simultaneous control of multiple properties, such as optimal isotropic and auxetic characteristics, remains challenging. This paper introduces a systematic design approach that combines modeling, FEA, genetic algorithm, and optimization to create tailored mechanical behavior in metamaterials. Through strategically arranging 8 distinct neither isotropic nor auxetic unit cell states, the stiffness tensor in a 5 × 5 × 5 cubic symmetric lattice structure is controlled. Employing the NSGA-II genetic algorithm and automated modeling, we yield metamaterial lattice structures possessing both desired isotropic and auxetic properties. Multiphoton lithography fabrication and experimental characterization of the optimized metamaterial highlights a practical real-world use and confirms the close correlation between theoretical and experimental data.

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  2. Biomimetic and Bioinspired designs have been investigated due to the advances in modeling, mechanics and experimental characterization of structural features of living organisms. To accomplish bioinspiration for fields such as robotics, adhesives and smart materials, it is required to comprehend how Nature accomplished enhanced mechanical behavior. Among the plethora of complex organisms spanning at different lengthscales, the deep sea sponge Euplectella Aspergillum has been of particular interest due to its lattice structure that can be the framework to design mechanical metamaterials. However, despite its intriguing morphology, constraints in the fabrication and modeling of scalable and nonuniform materials has hindered the study of its mechanical performance and how to harness it. Moreover, a comprehensive FEA model that encompasses the whole spectrum of its constitutive and structural performance has not been reported. In this study, it is aimed to characterize and model the mechanical behavior of this sponge from a structural standpoint. Utilizing various experimental techniques, an FEA mechanical model is developed to study the nonlinear buckling analysis of the sponge’s lattice structure and its resilience to failure. Finally, through topology optimization and sensitivity analysis, a new mechanical metamaterial is proposed. Our results elucidate how mechanical characterization and FEA modeling can be employed for a deeper understanding of Nature’s tailored hierarchy and the design of metamaterials. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The twisted stacking of two layered crystals has led to the emerging moiré physics as well as intriguing chiral phenomena such as chiral phonon and photon generation. In this work, we identified and theoretically formulated a non-trivial twist-enabled coupling mechanism in twisted bilayer photonic crystal (TBPC), which connects the bound state in the continuum (BIC) mode to the free space through the twist-enabled channel. Moreover, the radiation from TBPC hosts an optical vortex in the far field with both odd and even topological orders. We quantitatively analyzed the twist-enabled coupling between the BIC mode and other non-local modes in the photonic crystals, giving rise to radiation carrying orbital angular momentum. The optical vortex generation is robust against geometric disturbance, making TBPC a promising platform for well-defined vortex generation. As a result, TBPCs not only provide a new approach to manipulating the angular momentum of photons, but may also enable novel applications in integrated optical information processing and optical tweezers. Our work broadens the field of moiré photonics and paves the way toward the novel application of moiré physics.

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  4. GHz fs burst ablation mechanisms are investigated using in situ multimodal probing diagnostics. 
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  5. We demonstrate the laser mediated atomic layer etching (ALEt) of silicon. Using a nanosecond pulsed 266 nm laser focused loosely over and in a parallel configuration to the surface of the silicon, we dissociate Cl2 gas to induce chlorination. Then, we use pulsed picosecond irradiation to remove the chlorinated layer. Subsequently, we perform continuous wave (CW) laser annealing to eliminate amorphization caused by the picosecond laser etching. Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we observed strong evidence of chlorination and digital etching at 0.85 nm etching per cycle with good uniformity. 
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  6. Chemical doping can be used to control the charge-carrier polarity and concentration in two-dimensional van der Waals materials. However, conventional methods based on substitutional doping or surface functionalization result in the degradation of electrical mobility due to structural disorder, and the maximum doping density is set by the solubility limit of dopants. Here we show that a reversible laser-assisted chlorination process can be used to create high doping concentrations (above 3 × 1013 cm−2) in graphene monolayers with minimal drops in mobility. The approach uses two lasers—with distinct photon energies and geometric configurations—that are designed for chlorination and subsequent chlorine removal, allowing highly doped patterns to be written and erased without damaging the graphene. To illustrate the capabilities of our approach, we use it to create rewritable photoactive junctions for graphene-based photodetectors. 
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