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  1. Understanding carrier recombination processes in metal halide perovskites is fundamentally important to further improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells, yet the accurate recombination velocity at grain boundaries (GBs) has not been determined. Here, we report the determination of carrier recombination velocities at GBs (SGB) of polycrystalline perovskites by mapping the transient photoluminescence pattern change induced by the nonradiative recombination of carriers at GBs. Charge recombination at GBs is revealed to be even stronger than at surfaces of unpassivated films, with averageSGBreaching 2200 to 3300 cm/s. Regular surface treatments do not passivate GBs because of the absence of contact at GBs. We find a surface treatment using tributyl(methyl)phosphonium dimethyl phosphate that can penetrate into GBs by partially dissolving GBs and converting it into one-dimensional perovskites. It reduces the averageSGBby four times, with the lowestSGBof 410 cm/s, which is comparable to surface recombination velocities after passivation.

     
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  2. Abstract Perovskite photovoltaics are gaining increasing common ground to partner with or compete with silicon photovoltaics to reduce cost of solar energy. However, a cost-effective waste management for toxic lead (Pb), which might determine the fate of this technology, has not been developed yet. Here, we report an end-of-life material management for perovskite solar modules to recycle toxic lead and valuable transparent conductors to protect the environment and create dramatic economic benefits from recycled materials. Lead is separated from decommissioned modules by weakly acidic cation exchange resin, which could be released as soluble Pb(NO 3 ) 2 followed by precipitation as PbI 2 for reuse, with a recycling efficiency of 99.2%. Thermal delamination disassembles the encapsulated modules with intact transparent conductors and cover glasses. The refabricated devices based on recycled lead iodide and recycled transparent conductors show comparable performance as devices based on fresh raw materials. Cost analysis shows this recycling technology is economically attractive. 
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  3. Despite the high-efficiency and low-cost prospect for perovskite solar cells, great concerns of lead toxicity and instability remain for this technology. Here, we report an encapsulation strategy for perovskite modules based on lead-adsorbing ionogel, which prevents lead leakage and withstand long-term stability tests. The ionogel layers integrated on both sides of modules enhance impact resistance. The self-healable ionogel can prevent water permeation into the perovskite layer and adsorb lead that might leak. The encapsulated devices pass the damp heat and thermal cycling accelerated stability tests according to International Electrotechnical Commission 61215 standard. The ionogel encapsulation reduces lead leakage to undetectable level after the hail-damaged module is soaked in water for 24 hours. Even being rolled over by a car followed by water soaking for 45 days, the ionogel encapsulation reduces lead leakage by three orders of magnitude. This work provides a strategy to simultaneously address lead leakage and stability for perovskite modules. 
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