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  1. Abstract

    The very‐low frequency (VLF) and low frequency (LF) waves from ground transmitters propagate in the ionospheric waveguide, and a portion of their power leaks to the Earth's inner radiation belt and slot region where it can cause electron precipitation loss. Using Van Allen Probes observations, we perform a survey of the VLF and LF transmitter waves at frequencies from 14 to 200 kHz. The statistical electric and magnetic wave amplitudes and frequency spectra are obtained at 1 < L < 3. Based on a recent study on the propagation of VLF transmitter waves, we divide the total wave power into ducted and unducted portions, and model the wave normal angle of unducted waves with dependences onLshell, magnetic latitude, and wave frequency. At lower frequencies, the unducted waves are launched along the vertical direction and the wave normal angle increases during the propagation until reaching the Gendrin angle; at higher frequencies, the normal angle of unducted waves follows the variation of Gendrin angle. We calculate the bounce‐averaged pitch angle and momentum diffusion coefficients of electrons due to ducted and unducted VLF and LF waves. Unducted and ducted waves cause efficient pitch angle scattering atL = 1.5 and 2.5, respectively. Although the wave power from ground transmitters atmore »frequencies higher than 30 kHz is low, these waves can cause the pitch angle scattering of lower energy (2–200 keV atL = 1.5) electrons, which cannot resonate with the VLF transmitter waves at frequencies below 30 kHz, lightning generated whistlers, or plasmaspheric hiss.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
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  5. Abstract The MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) maintains a high level of liquid argon purity through the use of a filtration system that removes electronegative contaminants in continuously-circulated liquid, recondensed boil off, and externally supplied argon gas. We use the MicroBooNE LArTPC to reconstruct MeV-scale radiological decays. Using this technique we measure the liquid argon filtration system's efficacy at removing radon. This is studied by placing a 500 kBq 222 Rn source upstream of the filters and searching for a time-dependent increase in the number of radiological decays in the LArTPC. In the context of two models for radon mitigation via a liquid argon filtration system, a slowing mechanism and a trapping mechanism, MicroBooNE data supports a radon reduction factor of greater than 97% or 99.999%, respectively. Furthermore, a radiological survey of the filters found that the copper-based filter material was the primary medium that removed the 222 Rn. This is the first observation of radon mitigation in liquid argon with a large-scale copper-based filter and could offer a radon mitigation solution for future large LArTPCs.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  7. Abstract In this article, we describe a modified implementation of Mask Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Mask-RCNN) for cosmic ray muon clustering in a liquid argon TPC and applied to MicroBooNE neutrino data. Our implementation of this network, called sMask-RCNN, uses sparse submanifold convolutions to increase processing speed on sparse datasets, and is compared to the original dense version in several metrics. The networks are trained to use wire readout images from the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber as input and produce individually labeled particle interactions within the image. These outputs are identified as either cosmic ray muon or electron neutrino interactions. We find that sMask-RCNN has an average pixel clustering efficiency of 85.9% compared to the dense network's average pixel clustering efficiency of 89.1%. We demonstrate the ability of sMask-RCNN used in conjunction with MicroBooNE's state-of-the-art Wire-Cell cosmic tagger to veto events containing only cosmic ray muons. The addition of sMask-RCNN to the Wire-Cell cosmic tagger removes 70% of the remaining cosmic ray muon background events at the same electron neutrino event signal efficiency. This event veto can provide 99.7% rejection of cosmic ray-only background events while maintaining an electron neutrino event-level signal efficiency of 80.1%. In addition tomore »cosmic ray muon identification, sMask-RCNN could be used to extract features and identify different particle interaction types in other 3D-tracking detectors.« less
  8. Abstract The Pandora Software Development Kit and algorithm libraries provide pattern-recognition logic essential to the reconstruction of particle interactions in liquid argon time projection chamber detectors. Pandora is the primary event reconstruction software used at ProtoDUNE-SP, a prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector. ProtoDUNE-SP, located at CERN, is exposed to a charged-particle test beam. This paper gives an overview of the Pandora reconstruction algorithms and how they have been tailored for use at ProtoDUNE-SP. In complex events with numerous cosmic-ray and beam background particles, the simulated reconstruction and identification efficiency for triggered test-beam particles is above 80% for the majority of particle type and beam momentum combinations. Specifically, simulated 1 GeV/ c charged pions and protons are correctly reconstructed and identified with efficiencies of 86.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 % and 84.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 %, respectively. The efficiencies measured for test-beam data are shown to be within 5% of those predicted by the simulation.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024