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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 28, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Organic semiconductors with high-spin ground states are fascinating because they could enable fundamental understanding on the spin-related phenomenon in light element and provide opportunities for organic magnetic and quantum materials. Although high-spin ground states have been observed in some quinoidal type small molecules or doped organic semiconductors, semiconducting polymers with high-spin at their neutral ground state are rarely reported. Here we report three high-mobility semiconducting polymers with different spin ground states. We show that polymer building blocks with small singlet-triplet energy gap (Δ E S-T ) could enable small Δ E S-T gap and increase the diradical character in copolymers. We demonstrate that the electronic structure, spin density, and solid-state interchain interactions in the high-spin polymers are crucial for their ground states. Polymers with a triplet ground state ( S  = 1) could exhibit doublet ( S  = 1/2) behavior due to different spin distributions and solid-state interchain spin-spin interactions. Besides, these polymers showed outstanding charge transport properties with high hole/electron mobilities and can be both n- and p-doped with superior conductivities. Our results demonstrate a rational approach to obtain high-mobility semiconducting polymers with different spin ground states.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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  5. Conjugated polymers have been widely investigated where ladder-type conjugated polymers receive more attention due to their rigid backbones and extraordinary properties. However, the understanding of how the rigid conformation of ladder polymers translates to material properties is still limited. Here, we systematically investigated the solution aggregation properties of a carbazole-derived conjugated ladder polymer (LP) and its analogous non-ladder control polymer (CP) via light scattering, neutron scattering, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy characterization techniques, revealing a highly robust, temperature-insensitive aggregation behavior of the LP. The experimental findings were further validated by computational molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the peak positions and intensities of the UV spectra of the LP remained constant between 20 °C and 120 °C in chlorobenzene solution. The polymer also showed a stable hydrodynamic radius measured by dynamic light scattering from 20 °C to 70 °C in the chlorobenzene solution. Using small-angle neutron scattering, no Guinier region was reached in the measured q range down to 0.008 Å −1 , even at elevated temperature. In contrast, the non-ladder control polymer CP was fully soluble in the chlorobenzene solvent without the observation of any notable aggregates. The Brownian dynamics simulation showed that during polymer aggregation, the entropy change ofmore »the LP was significantly less negative than that of the non-ladder control polymer. These findings revealed the low entropy nature of rigid conjugated ladder polymers and the low entropy penalty for their aggregation, which is promising for highly robust intermolecular interactions at high temperatures. Such a unique thermodynamic feature of rigid ladder polymers can be leveraged in the design and application of next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices that function under unconventional high temperature conditions.« less
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