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  1. Rafferty, A. ; Whitehall, J. ; Cristobal, R. ; Cavalli-Sforza, V. (Ed.)
    We propose VarFA, a variational inference factor analysis framework that extends existing factor analysis models for educational data mining to efficiently output uncertainty estimation in the model's estimated factors. Such uncertainty information is useful, for example, for an adaptive testing scenario, where additional tests can be administered if the model is not quite certain about a students' skill level estimation. Traditional Bayesian inference methods that produce such uncertainty information are computationally expensive and do not scale to large data sets. VarFA utilizes variational inference which makes it possible to efficiently perform Bayesian inference even on very large data sets. Wemore »use the sparse factor analysis model as a case study and demonstrate the efficacy of VarFA on both synthetic and real data sets. VarFA is also very general and can be applied to a wide array of factor analysis models.« less
  2. Devices that facilitate nonverbal communication typically require high computational loads or have rigid and bulky form factors that are unsuitable for use on the face or on other curvilinear body surfaces. Here, we report the design and pilot testing of an integrated system for decoding facial strains and for predicting facial kinematics. The system consists of mass-manufacturable, conformable piezoelectric thin films for strain mapping; multiphysics modelling for analysing the nonlinear mechanical interactions between the conformable device and the epidermis; and three-dimensional digital image correlation for reconstructing soft-tissue surfaces under dynamic deformations as well as for informing device design and placement.more »In healthy individuals and in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we show that the piezoelectric thin films, coupled with algorithms for the real-time detection and classification of distinct skin-deformation signatures, enable the reliable decoding of facial movements. The integrated system could be adapted for use in clinical settings as a nonverbal communication technology or for use in the monitoring of neuromuscular conditions.« less
  3. Simulation-to-real domain adaptation for semantic segmentation has been actively studied for various applications such as autonomous driving. Existing methods mainly focus on a single-source setting, which cannot easily handle a more practical scenario of multiple sources with different distributions. In this paper, we propose to investigate multi-source domain adaptation for semantic segmentation. Specifically, we design a novel framework, termed Multi-source Adversarial Domain Aggregation Network (MADAN), which can be trained in an end-to-end manner. First, we generate an adapted domain for each source with dynamic semantic consistency while aligning at the pixel-level cycle-consistently towards the target. Second, we propose sub-domain aggregationmore »discriminator and cross-domain cycle discriminator to make different adapted domains more closely aggregated. Finally, feature-level alignment is performed between the aggregated domain and target domain while training the segmentation network. Extensive experiments from synthetic GTA and SYNTHIA to real Cityscapes and BDDS datasets demonstrate that the proposed MADAN model outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. Our source code is released at: https://github.com/Luodian/MADAN.« less