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Creators/Authors contains: "Gu, Zheng"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. This paper studies how RAID (redundant array of independent disks) could take full advantage of modern SSDs (solid-state drives) with built-in transparent compression. In current practice, RAID users are forced to choose a specific RAID level (e.g., RAID 10 or RAID 5) with a fixed storage cost vs. speed performance trade-off. The commercial market is witnessing the emergence of a new family of SSDs that can internally perform hardware-based lossless compression on each 4KB LBA (logical block address) block, transparent to host OS and user applications. Beyond straightforwardly reducing the RAID storage cost, such modern SSDs make it possible to relieve RAID users from being locked into a fixed storage cost vs. speed performance trade-off. In particular, RAID systems could opportunistically leverage higher-than-expected runtime user data compressibility to enable dynamic RAID level conversion to improve the speed performance without compromising the effective storage capacity. This paper presents techniques to enable and optimize the practical implementation of such elastic RAID systems. We implemented a Linux software-based elastic RAID prototype that supports dynamic conversion between RAID 5 and RAID 10. Compared with a baseline software-based RAID 5, under sufficient runtime data compressibility that enables the conversion from RAID 5 to RAID 10 over 60% of user data, the elastic RAID could improve the 4KB random write IOPS (I/O per second) by 42% and 4KB random read IOPS in degraded mode by 46%, while maintaining the same effective storage capacity. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 5, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Legume crops such as soybean obtain a large portion of their nitrogen nutrition through symbiotic nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic rhizobia bacteria in root nodules. However, nodule occupancy by low‐capacity nitrogen‐fixing rhizobia can lead to lower‐than‐optimal levels of nitrogen fixation. Seed/root coating with engineered materials such as graphene‐carrying biomolecules that may promote specific attraction/attachment of desirable bacterial strains is a potential strategy that can help overcome this rhizobia competition problem. As a first step towards this goal, we assessed the impact of graphene on soybean andBradyrhizobiumusing a set of growth, biochemical, and physiological assays. Three different concentrations of graphene were tested for toxicity in soybean (50, 250, and 1,000 mg/l) andBradyrhizobia(25, 50, and 100 mg/l). Higher graphene concentrations (250 mg/l and 1,000 mg/l) promoted seed germination but slightly delayed plant development. Spectrometric and microscopy assays for hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion suggested that specific concentrations of graphene led to higher levels of reactive oxygen species in the roots. In agreement, these roots also showed higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Conversely, no toxic effects were detected onBradyrhizobiatreated with graphene, and neither did they have higher levels of reactive oxygen species. Graphene treatments at 250 mg/l and 1,000 mg/l significantly reduced the number of nodules, but rhizobia infection and the overall nitrogenase activity were not affected. Our results show that graphene can be used as a potential vehicle for seed/root treatment.

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