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  1. Chromatographic retention times and mass spectrometral fragmentation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) standards were determined using the optimized parameters obtained for liquid chromatography with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis. Characteristic fragment ions obtained at various collision energies (MS2 fragmentation) were used for structural elucidation to predict the identities of newly discovered (emerging) PFASs detected in environmental samples. Moreover, the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to calculate the octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) and mean isotropic polarizabilities of known PFASs, and the values were plotted against their chromatographic retention factors (k) to obtain a multivariable regression model that can be used to predict k values of unknown PFASs. Retention factor values of different structural isomers of the unknown PFASs were calculated and compared to the experimental k. For all the unknown PFASs, the predicted k value for the isomer that matches the corresponding MS2 fragmentation was found to be within 5% of the experimentally measured k value. This study demonstrates the applicability of a simple approach that combines the use of computationally-derived log Kow and polarizabilities, experimentally-determined k values, together with observed MS2 fragmentation patterns, in assigning the structures of emerging PFASs at environmentally relevant conditions when no reference standards are available. 
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