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  1. null (Ed.)
    Among extant vertebrates, mammals are distinguished by having a chain of three auditory ossicles (the malleus, incus and stapes) that transduce sound waves and promote an increased range of audible—especially high—frequencies. By contrast, the homologous bones in early fossil mammals and relatives also functioned in chewing through their bony attachments to the lower jaw. Recent discoveries of well-preserved Mesozoic mammals have provided glimpses into the transition from the dual (masticatory and auditory) to the single auditory function for the ossicles, which is now widely accepted to have occurred at least three times in mammal evolution. Here we report a skullmore »and postcranium that we refer to the haramiyidan Vilevolodon diplomylos (dating to the Middle Jurassic epoch (160 million years ago)) and that shows excellent preservation of the malleus, incus and ectotympanic (which supports the tympanic membrane). After comparing this fossil with other Mesozoic and extant mammals, we propose that the overlapping incudomallear articulation found in this and other Mesozoic fossils, in extant monotremes and in early ontogeny in extant marsupials and placentals is a morphology that evolved in several groups of mammals in the transition from the dual to the single function for the ossicles.« less
  2. Orchestration tools may support K-12 teachers in facilitating student learning, especially when designed to address classroom stakeholders’ needs. Our previous work revealed a need for human-AI shared control when dynamically pairing students for collaborative learning in the classroom, but offered limited guidance on the role each agent should take. In this study, we designed storyboards for scenarios where teachers, students and AI co-orchestrate dynamic pairing when using AI-based adaptive math software for individual and collaborative learning. We surveyed 54 math teachers on their co-orchestration preferences. We found that teachers would like to share control with the AI to lessen theirmore »orchestration load. As well, they would like to have the AI propose student pairs with explanations, and identify risky proposed pairings. However, teachers are hesitant to let the AI auto-pair students even if they are busy, and are less inclined to let AI override teacher-proposed pairing. Our study contributes to teachers’ needs, preference, and boundaries for how they want to share the task and control of student pairing with the AI and students, and design implications in human-AI co-orchestration tools.« less
  3. Liu, W. ; Wang, Y. ; Guo, B. ; Tang, X. ; Zeng, S. (Ed.)
    The 19 F( p , αγ ) 16 O reaction is of crucial importance for Galactic 19 F abundances and CNO cycle loss in first generation Population III stars. Due to its extremely small cross sections, the 19 F( p , αγ ) 16 O reaction has not been measured in the low energy part of the Gamow window(70-200 keV). As a day-one campaign, the experiment was performed under the extremely low cosmicray-induced background environment of the China JinPing Underground Laboratory(CJPL), one of the deepest underground laboratories in the world. The γ -ray yields were measured over E c .more »m . =72.4–344 keV, covering the full Gamow window for the first time. The direct experimental data will help people to expound the fluorine over-abundances, energy generation, as well as heavy-element nuclosynthesis scenario in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, with the astrophysical model on the firm ground.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
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  8. null (Ed.)