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  1. Simple closed-form upper and lower bounds are developed for the security of the Nakamoto consensus as a function of the confirmation depth, the honest and adversarial block mining rates, and an upper bound on the block propagation delay. The bounds are exponential in the confirmation depth and apply regardless of the adversary's attack strategy. The gap between the upper and lower bounds is small for Bitcoin's parameters. For example, assuming an average block interval of 10 minutes, a network delay bound of ten seconds, and 10% adversarial mining power, the widely used 6-block confirmation rule yields a safety violation between 0.11% and 0.35% probability. 
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  2. In this community review report, we discuss applications and techniques for fast machine learning (ML) in science—the concept of integrating powerful ML methods into the real-time experimental data processing loop to accelerate scientific discovery. The material for the report builds on two workshops held by the Fast ML for Science community and covers three main areas: applications for fast ML across a number of scientific domains; techniques for training and implementing performant and resource-efficient ML algorithms; and computing architectures, platforms, and technologies for deploying these algorithms. We also present overlapping challenges across the multiple scientific domains where common solutions can be found. This community report is intended to give plenty of examples and inspiration for scientific discovery through integrated and accelerated ML solutions. This is followed by a high-level overview and organization of technical advances, including an abundance of pointers to source material, which can enable these breakthroughs. 
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