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  1. Abstract The formation, development, and impact of slow shocks in the upstream regions of reconnecting current layers are explored. Slow shocks have been documented in the upstream regions of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of magnetic reconnection as well as in similar simulations with the kglobal kinetic macroscale simulation model. They are therefore a candidate mechanism for preheating the plasma that is injected into the current layers that facilitate magnetic energy release in solar flares. Of particular interest is their potential role in producing the hot thermal component of electrons in flares. During multi-island reconnection, the formation and merging of flux ropesmore »in the reconnecting current layer drives plasma flows and pressure disturbances in the upstream region. These pressure disturbances steepen into slow shocks that propagate along the reconnecting component of the magnetic field and satisfy the expected Rankine–Hugoniot jump conditions. Plasma heating arises from both compression across the shock and the parallel electric field that develops to maintain charge neutrality in a kinetic system. Shocks are weaker at lower plasma β , where shock steepening is slow. While these upstream slow shocks are intrinsic to the dynamics of multi-island reconnection, their contribution to electron heating remains relatively minor compared with that from Fermi reflection and the parallel electric fields that bound the reconnection outflow.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. We report measurements of the parity-conserving beam-normal single-spin elastic scattering asymmetries Bn on 12C and 27Al, obtained with an electron beam polarized transverse to its momentum direction. These measurements add an additional kinematic point to a series of previous measurements of Bn on 12C and provide a first measurement on 27Al. The experiment utilized the Qweak apparatus at Jefferson Lab with a beam energy of 1.158 GeV. The average laboratory scattering angle for both targets was 7.7∘, and the average Q2 for both targets was 0.024 37 GeV2 (Q=0.1561 GeV). The asymmetries are Bn=−10.68±0.90(stat)±0.57(syst) ppm for 12C and Bn=−12.16±0.58(stat)±0.62(syst) ppmmore »for 27Al. The results are consistent with theoretical predictions, and are compared to existing data. When scaled by Z/A, the Q dependence of all the far-forward angle (θ<10∘) data from 1H to 27Al can be described by the same slope out to Q≈0.35 GeV. Larger-angle data from other experiments in the same Q range are consistent with a slope about twice as steep.« less
  4. A beam-normal single-spin asymmetry generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons is an observable related to the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange process. We report a 2% precision measurement of the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering with a mean scattering angle of θlab=7.9° and a mean energy of 1.149 GeV. The asymmetry result is Bn=−5.194±0.067(stat)±0.082 (syst) ppm. This is the most precise measurement of this quantity available to date and therefore provides a stringent test of two-photon exchange models at far-forward scattering angles (θlab→0) where they should be most reliable.