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  1. A new species, Gamasodes pachysetis Yao & Jin sp. nov., is described based on deutonymphs and adults from Jiangsu and Taiwan provinces, China. A nominal species, Gamasodes spiniger Trägårdh, 1910, new to China, is redescribed also based on deutonymph and adults from Guizhou Province. A key to Gamasodes species of China is presented.
  2. Efficient spin-charge conversion is indispensable in the spintronic computing and memory technologies for achieving low power. Spin Hall and quantum spin Hall effects have been demonstrated in certain atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials. In this work, we develop a multiscale simulation method from atomistic quantum transport simulation to the circuit model for the spin Hall effect (SHE) device based on 2D materials. Numerical implementation to speed up atomistic transport simulations with the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism is described for the crossbar SHE device. The multiscale method can treat atomistic scale features and compute spintronic device performance metrics of the modeledmore »device. As an example, the effect of edge roughness on the SHE devices based on monolayer 2D materials is investigated. The results illustrate that aggressively scaled monolayer SHE devices can efficiently transduce charge to spin in the presence of edge roughness.« less
  3. We study a heterogeneous two-tier wireless sensor network in which N heterogeneous access points (APs) collect sensing data from densely distributed sensors and then forward the data to M heterogeneous fusion centers (FCs). This heterogeneous node deployment problem is modeled as a quantization problem with distortion defined as the total power consumption of the network. The necessary conditions of the optimal AP and FC node deployment are explored in this paper. We provide a variation of Voronoi diagrams as the optimal cell partition for this network, and show that each AP should be placed between its connected FC and themore »geometric center of its cell partition. In addition, we propose a heterogeneous two-tier Lloyd-like algorithm to optimize the node deployment. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the existing methods like Minimum Energy Routing, Agglomerative Clustering, and Divisive Clustering, on average.« less
  4. In many quantization problems, the distortion function is given by the Euclidean metric to measure the distance of a source sample to any given reproduction point of the quantizer. We will in this work regard distortion functions, which are additively and multiplicatively weighted for each reproduction point resulting in a heterogeneous quantization problem, as used for example in deployment problems of sensor networks. Whereas, normally in such problems, the average distortion is minimized for given weights (parameters), we will optimize the quantization problem over all weights, i.e., we tune or control the distortion functions in our favor. For a uniformmore »source distribution in one-dimension, we derive the unique minimizer, given as the uniform scalar quantizer with an optimal common weight. By numerical simulations, we demonstrate that this result extends to two-dimensions where asymptotically the parameter optimized quantizer is the hexagonal lattice with common weights. As an application, we will determine the optimal deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to provide a wireless communication to ground terminals under a minimal communication power cost. Here, the optimal weights relate to the optimal flight heights of the UAVs.« less
  5. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  6. Abstract The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed tomore »meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters enhances thephysics reach of the experiment during the upcoming operation atincreasing Large Hadron Collider luminosities.The new system, installed during the second Large Hadron Collider Long Shutdown,increases the trigger readout granularity by up to a factor of tenas well as its precision and range.Consequently, the background rejection at trigger level is improvedthrough enhanced filtering algorithms utilizing the additional informationfor topological discrimination of electromagnetic and hadronic shower shapes.This paper presents the final designs of the new electronic elements,their custom electronic devices, the proceduresused to validate their proper functioning, andmore »the performance achievedduring the commissioning of this system.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023