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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 25, 2022
  4. Context. The PSR J2222−0137 binary system has a set of features that make it a unique laboratory for tests of gravity theories. Aims. To fully exploit the system’s potential for these tests, we aim to improve the measurements of its physical parameters, spin and orbital orientation, and post-Keplerian parameters, which quantify the observed relativistic effects. Methods. We describe an improved analysis of archival very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, which uses a coordinate convention in full agreement with that used in timing. We have also obtained much improved polarimetry of the pulsar with the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescopemore »(FAST). We provide an improved analysis of significantly extended timing datasets taken with the Effelsberg, Nançay, and Lovell radio telescopes; this also includes previous timing data from the Green Bank Telescope. Results. From the VLBI analysis, we have obtained a new estimate of the position angle of the ascending node, Ω = 189 −18 +19 deg (all uncertainties are 68% confidence limits), and a new reference position for the pulsar with an improved and more conservative uncertainty estimate. The FAST polarimetric results, and in particular the detection of an interpulse, yield much improved estimates for the spin geometry of the pulsar, in particular an inclination of the spin axis of the pulsar of ∼84 deg. From the timing, we obtain a new ∼1% test of general relativity (GR) from the agreement of the Shapiro delay parameters and the rate of advance of periastron. Assuming GR in a self-consistent analysis of all effects, we obtain much improved masses: 1.831(10)  M ⊙ for the pulsar and 1.319(4)  M ⊙ for the white dwarf companion; the total mass, 3.150(14)  M ⊙ , confirms this as the most massive double degenerate binary known in the Galaxy. This analysis also yields the orbital orientation; in particular, the orbital inclination is 85.27(4) deg – indicating a close alignment between the spin of the pulsar and the orbital angular momentum – and Ω = 187.7(5.7) deg, which matches our new VLBI estimate. Finally, the timing also yields a precise measurement of the variation in the orbital period, Ṗ b = 0.251(8) × 10 −12 ss −1 ; this is consistent with the expected variation in the Doppler factor plus the orbital decay caused by the emission of gravitational waves predicted by GR. This agreement introduces stringent constraints on the emission of dipolar gravitational waves.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  5. Mobile edge computing (MEC) is an emerging paradigm that integrates computing resources in wireless access networks to process computational tasks in close proximity to mobile users with low latency. In this paper, we propose an online double deep Q networks (DDQN) based learning scheme for task assignment in dynamic MEC networks, which enables multiple distributed edge nodes and a cloud data center to jointly process user tasks to achieve optimal long-term quality of service (QoS). The proposed scheme captures a wide range of dynamic network parameters including non-stationary node computing capabilities, network delay statistics, and task arrivals. It learns themore »optimal task assignment policy with no assumption on the knowledge of the underlying dynamics. In addition, the proposed algorithm accounts for both performance and complexity, and addresses the state and action space explosion problem in conventional Q learning. The evaluation results show that the proposed DDQN-based task assignment scheme significantly improves the QoS performance, compared to the existing schemes that do not consider the effects of network dynamics on the expected long-term rewards, while scaling reasonably well as the network size increases.« less
  6. Booker, S (Ed.)
    Applying enzymatic reactions to produce useful molecules is a central focus of chemical biology. Iron and 2-oxoglutarate (Fe/2OG) enzymes are found in all kingdoms of life and catalyze a broad array of oxidative transformations. Herein, we demonstrate that the activity of an Fe/2OG enzyme can be redirected when changing the targeted carbon hybridization from sp3 to sp2. During leucine 5-hydroxylase catalysis, installation of an olefin group onto the substrate redirects the Fe(IV)−oxo species reactivity from hydroxylation to asymmetric epoxidation. The resulting epoxide subsequently undergoes intramolecular cyclization to form the substituted piperidine, 2S,5S-hydroxypipecolic acid.