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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks have been prevalent on the Internet for decades. Albeit various defenses, they keep growing in size, frequency, and duration. The new network paradigm, Software-defined networking (SDN), is also vulnerable to DDoS attacks. SDN uses logically centralized control, bringing the advantages in maintaining a global network view and simplifying programmability. When attacks happen, the control path between the switches and their associated controllers may become congested due to their limited capacity. However, the data plane visibility of SDN provides new opportunities to defend against DDoS attacks in the cloud computing environment. To this end, we conduct measurements to evaluate the throughput of the software control agents on some of the hardware switches when they are under attacks. Then, we design a new mechanism, calledScotch, to enable the network to scale up its capability and handle the DDoS attack traffic. In our design, the congestion works as an indicator to trigger the mitigation mechanism.Scotchelastically scales up the control plane capacity by using an Open vSwitch-based overlay.Scotchtakes advantage of both the high control plane capacity of a large number of vSwitches and the high data plane capacity of commodity physical switches to increase the SDN network scalability and resiliency under abnormal (e.g., DDoS attacks) traffic surges. We have implemented a prototype and experimentally evaluatedScotch. Our experiments in the small-scale lab environment and large-scale GENI testbed demonstrate thatScotchcan elastically scale up the control channel bandwidth upon attacks.

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  3. Abstract This paper presents an experimental study on a novel mechanical surface treatment process, namely piezo vibration striking treatment (PVST), which is realized by a piezo stack vibration device installed on a computer numerical control (CNC) machine. Unlike other striking-based surface treatments, PVST employs non-resonant mode piezo vibration to induce controllable tool strikes on the workpiece surface. In this study, an experimental setup of PVST is implemented. Four types of experiments, i.e., tool-surface approaching, single-spot striking, one-dimensional (1D) scan striking, and 2D scan striking, are conducted to investigate the relationships among the striking force, tool vibration displacement, and surface deformation in PVST. The study shows that PVST can induce strikes with consistent intensity in each cycle of tool vibration. Both the striking intensity and striking location can be well controlled. Such process capability is particularly demonstrated by the resulting texture and roughness of the treated surfaces. Moreover, two linear force relationships have been found in PVST. The first linear relationship is between the striking force and the reduction in vibration amplitude during striking. The second one is between the striking force and the permanent indentation depth created by the strike. These linear force relationships offer the opportunity to realize real-time monitoring and force-based feedback control of PVST. This study is the first step toward developing PVST as a more efficient deformation-based surface modification process. 
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