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  1. Many problem domains, including program synthesis and rewrite-based optimization, require searching astronomically large spaces of programs. Existing approaches often rely on building specialized data structures—version-space algebras, finite tree automata, or e-graphs—to compactly represent such spaces. At their core, all these data structures exploit independence of subterms; as a result, they cannot efficiently represent more complex program spaces, where the choices of subterms are entangled. We introduce equality-constrained tree automata (ECTAs), a new data structure, designed to compactly represent large spaces of programs with entangled subterms. We present efficient algorithms for extracting programs from ECTAs, implemented in a performant Haskell library, ecta. Using the ecta library, we construct Hectare, a type-driven program synthesizer for Haskell. Hectare significantly outperforms a state-of-the-art synthesizer Hoogle+—providing an average speedup of 8×—despite its implementation being an order of magnitude smaller.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 29, 2023
  2. With the rise of software-as-a-service and microservice architectures, RESTful APIs are now ubiquitous in mobile and web applications. A service can have tens or hundreds of API methods, making it a challenge for programmers to find the right combination of methods to solve their task. We present APIphany, a component-based synthesizer for programs that compose calls to RESTful APIs. The main innovation behind APIphany is the use of precise semantic types, both to specify user intent and to direct the search. APIphany contributes three novel mechanisms to overcome challenges in adapting component-based synthesis to the REST domain: (1) a type inference algorithm for augmenting REST specifications with semantic types; (2) an efficient synthesis technique for “wrangling” semi-structured data, which is commonly required in working with RESTful APIs; and (3) a new form of simulated execution to avoid executing APIs calls during synthesis. We evaluate APIphany on three real-world APIs and 32 tasks extracted from GitHub repositories and StackOverflow. In our experiments, APIphany found correct solutions to 29 tasks, with 23 of them reported among top ten synthesis results.
  3. Abstract
    The presented data contain recordings of underwater acoustic transmissions collected from a field experiment whose goal was to characterize self-interference for in-band full-duplex underwater acoustic communications. The experiment was conducted in the Lake of Tuscaloosa in July 2019. A single transmission-receiving line was deployed off a boat that was moored in the center of the lake. The transmission-receiving line had one acoustic transmitter and eight hydrophone receivers. Two types of signals, binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), were transmitted at the center frequency of 28 kHz. The receptions were recorded in .wav audio files by eighter high-precision digital hydrophones. In addition to the acoustic data, a complete set of source information, environmental measurements, and processed impulse responses are included in the data package. Matlab programs are also provided to retrieve the data and facilitate further analysis.
  4. We consider the problem of type-directed component-based synthesis where, given a set of (typed) components and a query type , the goal is to synthesize a term that inhabits the query. Classical approaches based on proof search in intuitionistic logics do not scale up to the standard libraries of modern languages, which span hundreds or thousands of components. Recent graph reachability based methods proposed for Java do scale, but only apply to monomorphic data and components: polymorphic data and components infinitely explode the size of the graph that must be searched, rendering synthesis intractable. We introduce type-guided abstraction refinement (TYGAR), a new approach for scalable type-directed synthesis over polymorphic datatypes and components. Our key insight is that we can overcome the explosion by building a graph over abstract types which represent a potentially unbounded set of concrete types. We show how to use graph reachability to search for candidate terms over abstract types, and introduce a new algorithm that uses proofs of untypeability of ill-typed candidates to iteratively refine the abstraction until a well-typed result is found. We have implemented TYGAR in H+, a tool that takes as input a set of Haskell libraries and a query type, and returnsmore »a Haskell term that uses functions from the provided libraries to implement the query type. Our support for polymorphism allows H+ to work with higher-order functions and type classes, and enables more precise queries due to parametricity. We have evaluated H+ on 44 queries using a set of popular Haskell libraries with a total of 291 components. H+ returns an interesting solution within the first five results for 32 out of 44 queries. Our results show that TYGAR allows H+ to rapidly return well-typed terms, with the median time to first solution of just 1.4 seconds. Moreover, we observe that gains from iterative refinement over exhaustive enumeration are more pronounced on harder queries.« less