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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 25, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The observation of X-rays during quiescence from transiently accreting neutron stars provides unique clues about the nature of dense matter. This, however, requires extensive modeling of the crusts and matching the results to observations. The pycnonuclear fusion reaction rates implemented in these models are theoretically calculated by extending phenomenological expressions and have large uncertainties spanning many orders of magnitude. We present the first sensitivity studies of these pycnonuclear fusion reactions in realistic network calculations. We also couple the reaction network with the thermal evolution codedStarto further study their impact on the neutron star cooling curves in quiescence. Varying the pycnonuclear fusion reaction rates alters the depth at which nuclear heat is deposited although the total heating remains constant. The enhancement of the pycnonuclear fusion reaction rates leads to an overall shallower deposition of nuclear heat. The impurity factors are also altered depending on the type of ashes deposited on the crust. These total changes correspond to a variation of up to 9 eV in the modeled cooling curves. While this is not sufficient to explain the shallow heat source, it is comparable to the observational uncertainties and can still be important for modeling the neutron star crust.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  6. Uniformity testing is one of the most well-studied problems in property testing, with many known test statistics, including ones based on counting collisions, singletons, and the empirical TV distance. It is known that the optimal sample complexity to distinguish the uniform distribution on m elements from any ϵ-far distribution with 1−δ probability is n=Θ(mlog(1/δ)√ϵ2+log(1/δ)ϵ2), which is achieved by the empirical TV tester. Yet in simulation, these theoretical analyses are misleading: in many cases, they do not correctly rank order the performance of existing testers, even in an asymptotic regime of all parameters tending to 0 or ∞. We explain this discrepancy by studying the \emph{constant factors} required by the algorithms. We show that the collisions tester achieves a sharp maximal constant in the number of standard deviations of separation between uniform and non-uniform inputs. We then introduce a new tester based on the Huber loss, and show that it not only matches this separation, but also has tails corresponding to a Gaussian with this separation. This leads to a sample complexity of (1+o(1))mlog(1/δ)√ϵ2 in the regime where this term is dominant, unlike all other existing testers. 
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