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  1. Abstract For a clustered graph , i.e, a graph whose vertex set is recursively partitioned into clusters, the C-Planarity Testing problem asks whether it is possible to find a planar embedding of the graph and a representation of each cluster as a region homeomorphic to a closed disk such that (1) the subgraph induced by each cluster is drawn in the interior of the corresponding disk, (2) each edge intersects any disk at most once, and (3) the nesting between clusters is reflected by the representation, i.e., child clusters are properly contained in their parent cluster. The computational complexity of this problem, whose study has been central to the theory of graph visualization since its introduction in 1995 [Feng, Cohen, and Eades, Planarity for clustered graphs , ESA’95], has only been recently settled [Fulek and Tóth, Atomic Embeddability, Clustered Planarity, and Thickenability , to appear at SODA’20]. Before such a breakthrough, the complexity question was still unsolved even when the graph has a prescribed planar embedding, i.e, for embedded clustered graphs . We show that the C-Planarity Testing problem admits a single-exponential single-parameter FPT (resp., XP) algorithm for embedded flat (resp., non-flat) clustered graphs, when parameterized by the carving-width of the dual graph of the input. These are the first FPT and XP algorithms for this long-standing open problem with respect to a single notable graph-width parameter. Moreover, the polynomial dependency of our FPT algorithm is smaller than the one of the algorithm by Fulek and Tóth. In particular, our algorithm runs in quadratic time for flat instances of bounded treewidth and bounded face size. To further strengthen the relevance of this result, we show that an algorithm with running time O ( r ( n )) for flat instances whose underlying graph has pathwidth 1 would result in an algorithm with running time O ( r ( n )) for flat instances and with running time $$O(r(n^2) + n^2)$$ O ( r ( n 2 ) + n 2 ) for general, possibly non-flat, instances. 
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  3. We provide insights pertaining the dependence of undercooling in the formation of graphite, nanodiamonds, and Q-carbon nanocomposites by nanosecond laser melting of diamond-like carbon (DLC). The DLC films are melted rapidly in a super-undercooled state and subsequently quenched to room temperature. Substrates exhibiting different thermal properties—silicon and sapphire, are used to demonstrate that substrates with lower thermal conductivity trap heat flow, inducing larger undercooling, both experimentally and theoretically via finite element simulations. The increased undercooling facilitates the formation of Q-carbon. The Q-carbon is used as nucleation seeds for diamond growth via laser remelting and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition. 
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