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  1. Bioengineered in vitro models of the kidney offer unprecedented opportunities to better mimic the in vivo microenvironment. Kidney-on-a-chip technology reproduces 2D or 3D features which can replicate features of the tissue architecture, composition, and dynamic mechanical forces experienced by cells in vivo. Kidney cells are exposed to mechanical stimuli such as substrate stiffness, shear stress, compression, and stretch, which regulate multiple cellular functions. Incorporating mechanical stimuli in kidney-on-a-chip is critically important for recapitulating the physiological or pathological microenvironment. This review will explore approaches to applying mechanical stimuli to different cell types using kidney-on-a-chip models and how these systems are used to study kidney physiology, model disease, and screen for drug toxicity. We further discuss sensor integration into kidney-on-a-chip for monitoring cellular responses to mechanical or other pathological stimuli. We discuss the advantages, limitations, and challenges associated with incorporating mechanical stimuli in kidney-on-a-chip models for a variety of applications. Overall, this review aims to highlight the importance of mechanical stimuli and sensor integration in the design and implementation of kidney-on-a-chip devices. 
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