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  1. Context.Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale structures of magnetized plasma that erupt from the corona into interplanetary space. The launch of Solar Orbiter (SolO) in 2020 enables in situ measurements of CMEs in the innermost heliosphere, at such distances where CMEs can be observed remotely within the inner field of view of heliospheric imagers (HIs). It thus provides the opportunity for investigations into the correspondence of the CME substructures measured in situ and observed remotely. We studied a CME that started on 2022 March 10 and was measured in situ by SolO at ∼0.44 au.

    Aims.Combining remote observations of CMEs from wide-angle imagers and in situ measurements in the innermost heliosphere allows us to compare CME properties derived through both techniques, validate the estimates, and better understand CME evolution, specifically the size and radial expansion, within 0.5 au.

    Methods.We compared the evolution of different CME substructures observed in images from the HIs on board the Ahead Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO-A) and the CME signatures measured in situ by SolO. The CME is found to possess a density enhancement at its rear edge in both remote and in situ observations, which validates the use of the signature of density enhancement following the CMEs to accurately identify the CME rear edge. We also estimated and compared the radial size and radial expansion speed of different substructures in both observations.

    Results.The evolution of the CME front and rear edges in remote images is consistent with the in situ CME measurements. The radial expansion (i.e., radial size and radial expansion speed) of the whole CME structure consisting of the magnetic ejecta and the sheath is consistent with the in situ estimates obtained at the same time from SolO. However, we do not find such consistencies for the magnetic ejecta region inside the CME because it is difficult to identify the magnetic ejecta edges in the remote images.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. Context.In the scope of space weather forecasting, it is crucial to be able to more reliably predict the arrival time, speed, and magnetic field configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). From the time a CME is launched, the dominant factor influencing all of the above is the interaction of the interplanetary CME (ICME) with the ambient plasma and interplanetary magnetic field.

    Aims.Due to a generally anisotropic heliosphere, differently oriented ICMEs may interact differently with the ambient plasma and interplanetary magnetic field, even when the initial eruption conditions are similar. For this, we examined the possible link between the orientation of an ICME and its propagation in the heliosphere (up to 1 AU).

    Methods.We investigated 31 CME-ICME associations in the period from 1997 to 2018. The CME orientation in the near-Sun environment was determined using an ellipse-fitting technique applied to single-spacecraft data from SOHO/LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. In the near-Earth environment, we obtained the orientation of the corresponding ICME using in situ plasma and magnetic field data. The shock orientation and nonradial flows in the sheath region for differently oriented ICMEs were investigated. In addition, we calculated the ICME transit time to Earth and drag parameter to probe the overall drag force for differently oriented ICMEs. The drag parameter was calculated using the reverse modeling procedure with the drag-based model.

    Results.We found a significant difference in nonradial flows for differently oriented ICMEs, whereas a significant difference in drag for differently oriented ICMEs was not found.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    In situ measurements from spacecraft typically provide a time series at a single location through coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and they have been one of the main methods to investigate CMEs. The CME properties derived from these in situ measurements are affected by temporal changes that occur as the CME passes over the spacecraft, such as radial expansion and aging, as well as spatial variations within a CME. This study uses multispacecraft measurements of the same CME at close separations to investigate both the spatial variability (how different a CME profile is when probed by two spacecraft close to each other) and the so-called aging effect (the effect of the time evolution on in situ properties). We compile a database of 19 events from the past 4 decades measured by two spacecraft with a radial separation of <0.2 au and an angular separation of <10°. We find that the average magnetic field strength measured by the two spacecraft differs by 18% of the typical average value, which highlights nonnegligible spatial or temporal variations. For one particular event, measurements taken by the two spacecraft allow us to quantify and significantly reduce the aging effect to estimate the asymmetry of the magnetic field strength profile. This study reveals that single-spacecraft time series near 1 au can be strongly affected by aging and that correcting for self-similar expansion does not capture the whole aging effect.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 26, 2024
  4. Habitat loss is a primary threat to biodiversity across the planet, yet contentious debate has ensued on the importance of habitat fragmentation ‘per se’ (i.e., altered spatial configuration of habitat for a given amount of habitat loss). Based on a review of landscape-scale investigations, Fahrig (2017; Ecological responses to habitat fragmentation per se. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 48:1-23) reports that biodiversity responses to habitat fragmentation ‘per se’ are more often positive rather than negative and concludes that the widespread belief in negative fragmentation effects is a ‘zombie idea’. We show that Fahrig’s conclusions are drawn from a narrow and potentially biased subset of available evidence, which ignore much of the observational, experimental and theoretical evidence for negative effects of altered habitat configuration. We therefore argue that Fahrig’s conclusions should be interpreted cautiously as they could be misconstrued by policy makers and managers, and we provide six arguments why they should not be applied in conservation decision-making. Reconciling the scientific disagreement, and informing conservation more effectively, will require research that goes beyond statistical and correlative approaches. This includes a more prudent use of data and conceptual models that appropriately partition direct vs indirect influences of habitat loss and altered spatial configuration, and more clearly discriminate the mechanisms underpinning any changes. Incorporating these issues will deliver greater mechanistic understanding and more predictive power to address the conservation issues arising from habitat loss and fragmentation. 
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  5. Abstract The production cross-section of a top quark in association with a W boson is measured using proton–proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 8\,\text {TeV}$$ s = 8 TeV . The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $$20.2\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$ 20.2 fb - 1 , and was collected in 2012 by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The analysis is performed in the single-lepton channel. Events are selected by requiring one isolated lepton (electron or muon) and at least three jets. A neural network is trained to separate the tW signal from the dominant $$t{\bar{t}}$$ t t ¯ background. The cross-section is extracted from a binned profile maximum-likelihood fit to a two-dimensional discriminant built from the neural-network output and the invariant mass of the hadronically decaying W boson. The measured cross-section is $$\sigma _{tW} = 26 \pm 7\,\text {pb}$$ σ tW = 26 ± 7 pb , in good agreement with the Standard Model expectation. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Abstract A measurement of the $$ B_{s}^{0} \rightarrow J/\psi \phi $$ B s 0 → J / ψ ϕ decay parameters using $$ 80.5\, \mathrm {fb^{-1}} $$ 80.5 fb - 1 of integrated luminosity collected with the ATLAS detector from 13  $$\text {Te}\text {V}$$ Te proton–proton collisions at the LHC is presented. The measured parameters include the CP -violating phase $$\phi _{s} $$ ϕ s , the width difference $$ \Delta \Gamma _{s}$$ Δ Γ s between the $$B_{s}^{0}$$ B s 0 meson mass eigenstates and the average decay width $$ \Gamma _{s}$$ Γ s . The values measured for the physical parameters are combined with those from $$ 19.2\, \mathrm {fb^{-1}} $$ 19.2 fb - 1 of 7 and 8  $$\text {Te}\text {V}$$ Te data, leading to the following: $$\begin{aligned} \phi _{s}= & {} -0.087 \pm 0.036 ~\mathrm {(stat.)} \pm 0.021 ~\mathrm {(syst.)~rad} \\ \Delta \Gamma _{s}= & {} 0.0657 \pm 0.0043 ~\mathrm {(stat.)}\pm 0.0037 ~\mathrm {(syst.)~ps}^{-1} \\ \Gamma _{s}= & {} 0.6703 \pm 0.0014 ~\mathrm {(stat.)}\pm 0.0018 ~\mathrm {(syst.)~ps}^{-1} \end{aligned}$$ ϕ s = - 0.087 ± 0.036 ( stat . ) ± 0.021 ( syst . ) rad Δ Γ s = 0.0657 ± 0.0043 ( stat . ) ± 0.0037 ( syst . ) ps - 1 Γ s = 0.6703 ± 0.0014 ( stat . ) ± 0.0018 ( syst . ) ps - 1 Results for $$\phi _{s} $$ ϕ s and $$ \Delta \Gamma _{s}$$ Δ Γ s are also presented as 68% confidence level contours in the $$\phi _{s} $$ ϕ s – $$ \Delta \Gamma _{s}$$ Δ Γ s plane. Furthermore the transversity amplitudes and corresponding strong phases are measured. $$\phi _{s} $$ ϕ s and $$ \Delta \Gamma _{s}$$ Δ Γ s measurements are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    Figure 5b of the paper [1] contained a misinterpretation in the comparison between the reported new ATLAS measurement of the process pp → Xp and previously published CMS data [2]. The ATLAS measurement corresponds to cases where either proton dissociates. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    Two additions impacting tables 3 and 4 in ref. [1] are presented in the following. No significant impact is found for other results or figures in ref. [1]. 
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  9. null (Ed.)
    A bstract A search for a chargino-neutralino pair decaying via the 125 GeV Higgs boson into photons is presented. The study is based on the data collected between 2015 and 2018 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb − 1 of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant excess over the expected background is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level for a massless $$ {\tilde{\chi}}_1^0 $$ χ ˜ 1 0 are set on several electroweakino production cross-sections and the visible cross-section for beyond the Standard Model processes. In the context of simplified supersymmetric models, 95% confidence-level limits of up to 310 GeV in $$ m\left({\tilde{\chi}}_1^{\pm }/{\tilde{\chi}}_2^0\right) $$ m χ ˜ 1 ± / χ ˜ 2 0 , where $$ m\left({\tilde{\chi}}_1^0\right) $$ m χ ˜ 1 0 = 0 . 5 GeV, are set. Limits at 95% confidence level are also set on the $$ {\tilde{\chi}}_1^{\pm }{\tilde{\chi}}_2^0 $$ χ ˜ 1 ± χ ˜ 2 0 cross-section in the mass plane of $$ m\left({\tilde{\chi}}_1^{\pm }/{\tilde{\chi}}_2^0\right) $$ m χ ˜ 1 ± / χ ˜ 2 0 and $$ m\left({\tilde{\chi}}_1^0\right) $$ m χ ˜ 1 0 , and on scenarios with gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle. Upper limits at the 95% confidence-level are set on the higgsino production cross-section. Higgsino masses below 380 GeV are excluded for the case of the higgsino fully decaying into a Higgs boson and a gravitino. 
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