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    We employ the hydrodynamical simulation illustrisTNG to inform the galaxy–halo connection of the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) and Emission Line Galaxy (ELG) samples of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey at redshift z ∼ 0.8. Specifically, we model the galaxy colours of illustrisTNG and apply sliding DESI colour–magnitude cuts, matching the DESI target densities. We study the halo occupation distribution (HOD) model of the selected samples by matching them to their corresponding dark matter haloes in the illustrisTNG dark matter run. We find the HOD of both the LRG and ELG samples to be consistent with their respective baseline models, but also we find important deviations from common assumptions about the satellite distribution, velocity bias, and galaxy secondary biases. We identify strong evidence for concentration-based and environment-based occupational variance in both samples, an effect known as ‘galaxy assembly bias’. The central and satellite galaxies have distinct dependencies on secondary halo properties, showing that centrals and satellites have distinct evolutionary trajectories and should be modelled separately. These results serve to inform the necessary complexities in modelling galaxy–halo connection for DESI analyses and also prepare for building high-fidelity mock galaxies. Finally, we present a shuffling-based clustering analysis that reveals amore »10–15 ${{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ excess in the LRG clustering of modest statistical significance due to secondary galaxy biases. We also find a similar excess signature for the ELGs, but with much lower statistical significance. When a larger hydrodynamical simulation volume becomes available, we expect our analysis pipeline to pinpoint the exact sources of such excess clustering signatures.

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    Tracking the formation and evolution of dark matter haloes is a critical aspect of any analysis of cosmological N-body simulations. In particular, the mass assembly of a halo and its progenitors, encapsulated in the form of its merger tree, serves as a fundamental input for constructing semi-analytic models of galaxy formation and, more generally, for building mock catalogues that emulate galaxy surveys. We present an algorithm for constructing halo merger trees from abacussummit, the largest suite of cosmological N-body simulations performed to date consisting of nearly 60 trillion particles, and which has been designed to meet the Cosmological Simulation Requirements of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Our method tracks the cores of haloes to determine associations between objects across multiple time slices, yielding lists of halo progenitors and descendants for the several tens of billions of haloes identified across the entire suite. We present an application of these merger trees as a means to enhance the fidelity of abacussummit halo catalogues by flagging and ‘merging’ haloes deemed to exhibit non-monotonic past merger histories. We show that this cleaning technique identifies portions of the halo population that have been deblended due to choices made by the halo finder,more »but which could have feasibly been part of larger aggregate systems. We demonstrate that by cleaning halo catalogues in this post-processing step, we remove potentially unphysical features in the default halo catalogues, leaving behind a more robust halo population that can be used to create highly accurate mock galaxy realizations from abacussummit.

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    We introduce the AbacusHOD model and present two applications of AbacusHOD and the AbacusSummit simulations to observations. AbacusHOD is a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) framework written in Python that is particle-based, multitracer, highly generalized, and highly efficient. It is designed specifically with multitracer/cosmology analyses for next-generation large-scale structure surveys in mind, and takes advantage of the volume and precision offered by the new state-of-the-art AbacusSummit cosmological simulations. The model is also highly customizable and should be broadly applicable to any upcoming surveys and a diverse range of cosmological analyses. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of the AbacusHOD framework through two example applications. The first example demonstrates the high efficiency and the large HOD extension feature set through an analysis of full-shape redshift-space clustering of BOSS galaxies at intermediate to small scales ($\lt 30\, h^{-1}$ Mpc), assessing the necessity of introducing secondary galaxy biases (assembly bias). We find strong evidence for using halo environment instead of concentration to trace secondary galaxy bias, a result which also leads to a moderate reduction in the ‘lensing is low’ tension. The second example demonstrates the multitracer capabilities of the AbacusHOD package through an analysis of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey cross-correlationmore »measurements between three different galaxy tracers: luminous red galaxies, emission-line galaxies, and quasi-stellar objects. We expect the AbacusHOD framework, in combination with the AbacusSummit simulation suite, to play an important role in a simulation-based analysis of the upcoming Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument data sets.

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