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  1. Chromatography is a robust and reliable separation method that can use various stationary phases to separate complex mixtures commonly seen in metabolomics. This review examines the types of chromatography and stationary phases that have been used in targeted or untargeted metabolomics with methods such as mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. General considerations for sample pretreatment and separations in metabolomics are considered, along with the various supports and separation formats for chromatography that have been used in such work. The types of liquid chromatography (LC) that have been most extensively used in metabolomics will be examined, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography. In addition, other forms of LC that have been used in more limited applications for metabolomics (e.g., ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity methods) will be discussed to illustrate how these techniques may be utilized for new and future research in this field. Multidimensional LC methods are also discussed, as well as the use of gas chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography in metabolomics. In addition, the roles of chromatography in NMR- vs. MS-based metabolomics are considered. Applications are given within the field of metabolomics for each type of chromatography, along with potential advantages or limitations of these separation methods. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Ultrafast affinity extraction (UAE) is a form of microscale affinity HPLC that can be employed to quickly measure equilibrium constants for solute-binding agent interactions in solution. This study used chromatographic and equilibrium theory with universal plots to examine the general conditions that are needed in UAE to obtain accurate, precise, and robust measurements of equilibrium constants for such interactions. The predicted results were compared to those obtained by UAE in studies that examined the binding of various drugs with two transport proteins: human serum albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein. The most precise and robust conditions for these binding studies occurred for systems with intermediate values for their equilibrium free fraction for the solute (F0 ≈ 0.20-0.80). These trends showed good agreement with those seen in prior studies using UAE. It was further determined how the apparent free fraction of a solute was related to the dissociation rate of this solute, the time allowed for solute dissociation during UAE, and the equilibrium free fraction for the solute. These results also agreed with experimental results, as obtained for the binding of warfarin and gliclazide with human serum albumin. The final section examined how a change in the apparent free fraction, as caused by solute dissociation, affected the accuracy of an equilibrium constant that was measured by UAE. In addition, theoretical plots were generated to allow the selection of conditions for UAE that provided a given level of accuracy during the measurement of an equilibrium constant. The equations created and trends identified for UAE were general ones that can be extended in future work to other solutes and binding agents. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  3. Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) is a type of liquid chromatography that uses immobilized antibodies or related binding agents as selective stationary phases for sample separation or analysis. The strong binding and high selectivity of antibodies have made IAC a popular tool for the purification and analysis of many chemicals and biochemicals, including proteins. The basic principles of IAC are described as related to the use of this method for protein purification and analysis. The main factors to consider in this technique are also presented under a discussion of the general strategy to follow during the development of a new IAC method. Protocols, as illustrated using human serum albumin (HSA) as a model protein, are provided for the use of IAC in several formats. This includes both the use of IAC with traditional low‐performance supports such as agarose for off‐line immunoextraction and supports used in high‐performance IAC for on‐line immunoextraction. The use of IAC for protein analysis as a flow‐based or chromatographic immunoassay is also discussed and described using HSA and a competitive binding assay format as an example. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. Biomolecules such as serum proteins can interact with drugs in the body and influence their pharmaceutical effects. Specific and precise methods that analyze these interactions are critical for drug development or monitoring and for diagnostic purposes. Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) is one technique that can be used to examine the binding between drugs and serum proteins, or other agents found in serum or blood. This article will review the basic principles of ACE, along with related affinity-based CE methods, and examine recent developments that have occurred in this field as related to the characterization of drug-protein interactions. An overview will be given of the various formats that can be used in ACE and CE for such work, including the relative advantages or weaknesses of each approach. Various applications of ACE and affinity-based CE methods for the analysis of drug interactions with serum proteins and other binding agents will also be presented. Applications of ACE and related techniques that will be discussed include drug interaction studies with serum agents, chiral drug separations employing serum proteins, and the use of CE in hybrid methods to characterize drug binding with serum proteins. 
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  5. Abstract

    Biomolecules such as serum proteins can interact with drugs in the body and influence their pharmaceutical effects. Specific and precise methods that analyze these interactions are critical for drug development or monitoring and for diagnostic purposes. Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) is one technique that can be used to examine the binding between drugs and serum proteins, or other agents found in serum or blood. This article will review the basic principles of ACE, along with related affinity‐based capillary electrophoresis (CE) methods, and examine recent developments that have occurred in this field as related to the characterization of drug–protein interactions. An overview will be given of the various formats that can be used in ACE and CE for such work, including the relative advantages or weaknesses of each approach. Various applications of ACE and affinity‐based CE methods for the analysis of drug interactions with serum proteins and other binding agents will also be presented. Applications of ACE and related techniques that will be discussed include drug interaction studies with serum agents, chiral drug separations employing serum proteins, and the use of CE in hybrid methods to characterize drug binding with serum proteins.

     
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  6. Antibody‐based therapeutic agents and other biopharmaceuticals are now used in the treatment of many diseases. However, when these biopharmaceuticals are administrated to patients, an immune reaction may occur that can reduce the drug's efficacy and lead to adverse side‐effects. The immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals can be evaluated by detecting and measuring antibodies that have been produced against these drugs, or antidrug antibodies. Methods for antidrug antibody detection and analysis can be important during the selection of a therapeutic approach based on such drugs and is crucial when developing and testing new biopharmaceuticals. This review examines approaches that have been used for antidrug antibody detection, measurement, and characterization. Many of these approaches are based on immunoassays and antigen binding tests, including homogeneous mobility shift assays. Other techniques that have been used for the analysis of antidrug antibodies are capillary electrophoresis, reporter gene assays, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry. The general principles of each approach will be discussed, along with their recent applications with regards to antidrug antibody analysis.

     
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