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    Cosmic rays (CRs) are thought to escape their sources streaming along the local magnetic field lines. We show that this phenomenon generally leads to the excitation of both resonant and non-resonant streaming instabilities. The self-generated magnetic fluctuations induce particle diffusion in extended regions around the source, so that CRs build up a large pressure gradient. By means of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hybrid particle-in-cell simulations, we show that such a pressure gradient excavates a cavity around the source and leads to the formation of a cosmic ray dominated bubble, inside which diffusivity is strongly suppressed. Based on the trends extracted from self-consistent simulations, we estimate that, in the absence of severe damping of the self-generated magnetic fields, the bubble should keep expanding until pressure balance with the surrounding medium is reached, corresponding to a radius of ∼10–50 pc. The implications of the formation of these regions of low diffusivity for sources of Galactic CRs are discussed. Special care is devoted to estimating the self-generated diffusion coefficient and the grammage that CRs might accumulate in the bubbles before moving into the interstellar medium. Based on the results of 3D simulations, general considerations on the morphology of the γ-ray and synchrotronmore »emission from these extended regions also are outlined.

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  2. Using hybrid simulations (kinetic ions--fluid electrons), we test the linear theory predictions of the cosmic ray (CR) streaming instability. We consider two types of CR distribution functions: a "hot" distribution where CRs are represented by a drifting power law in momentum and an anisotropic "beam" of monochromatic particles. Additionally, for each CR distribution we scan over different CR densities to transition from triggering the resonant to the non-resonant (Bell) streaming instability. We determine the growth rates of these instabilities in simulations by fitting an exponential curve during the linear stage, and we show that they agree well with the theoretical predictions as a function of wave number agree. We also examine the magnetic helicity as a function of time and wave number, finding a general good agreement with the predictions, as well as some unexpected non-linear features to the instability development.
  3. The nonresonant cosmic ray instability, predicted by Bell (2004), is thought to play an important role in the acceleration and confinement of cosmic rays (CRs) close to supernova remnants. Despite its importance, the exact mechanism responsible for the saturation of the instability has not been determined, and there is no first-principle prediction for the amplitude of the saturated magnetic field. Using a survey of self-consistent kinetic hybrid simulations (with kinetic ions and fluid electrons), we study the saturation of the non-resonant streaming instability as a function of the parameters of both the thermal background plasma and the CR population. The strength of the saturated magnetic field has important implications for both CR acceleration in supernova remnants and CR diffusion in the Galaxy.