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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 15, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 10, 2022
  3. Palladium(II)-catalyzed C–H oxidation reactions could streamline the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other complex organic molecules. Existing methods, however, commonly exhibit poor catalyst performance with high Pd loading (e.g., 10 mol %) and a need for (super)stoichiometric quantities of undesirable oxidants, such as benzoquinone and silver(I) salts. The present study probes the mechanism of a representative Pd-catalyzed oxidative C–H arylation reaction and elucidates mechanistic features that undermine catalyst performance, including substrate-consuming side reactions and sequestration of the catalyst as inactive species. Systematic tuning of the quinone co-catalyst overcomes these deleterious features. Use of 2,5-di- tert -butyl- p -benzoquinone enables efficientmore »use of molecular oxygen as the oxidant, high reaction yields, and >1900 turnovers by the palladium catalyst.« less
  4. The density functional theory method is used to elucidate the elementary steps of Ni( ii )-catalyzed C(sp 2 )–H iodination with I 2 and substrates bearing N , N ′-bidentate directing centers, amide-oxazoline (AO) and 8-aminoquinoline (AQ). The relative stability of the lowest energy high- and low-spin electronic states of the catalyst and intermediates is found to be an important factor for all of the steps in the reaction. As a result, two-state reactivity for these systems is reported, where the reaction is initiated on the triplet surface and generates a high energy singlet nickelacycle. It is shown that themore »addition of Na 2 CO 3 base to the reaction mixture facilitates C–H activation. The presence of I 2 in the reaction provides the much needed driving force for the C–H activation and nickelacycle formation and ultimately reacts to form a new C–I bond through either a redox neutral electrophilic cleavage (EC) pathway or a one-electron reductive cleavage (REC) pathway. The previously proposed Ni( ii )/Ni( iv ) and homolytic cleavage pathways are found to be higher in energy. The nature of the substrate is found to have a large impact on the relative stability of the lowest electronic states and on the stability of the nickelacycle resulting from C–H activation.« less