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  1. Multi-omics data analysis has the potential to discover hidden molecular interactions, revealing potential regulatory and/or signal transduction pathways for cellular processes of interest when studying life and disease systems. One of critical challenges when dealing with real-world multi-omics data is that they may manifest heterogeneous structures and data quality as often existing data may be collected from different subjects under different conditions for each type of omics data. We propose a novel deep Bayesian generative model to efficiently infer a multi-partite graph encoding molecular interactions across such heterogeneous views, using a fused Gromov-Wasserstein (FGW) regularization between latent representations of corresponding views for integrative analysis. With such an optimal transport regularization in the deep Bayesian generative model, it not only allows incorporating view-specific side information, either with graph-structured or unstructured data in different views, but also increases the model flexibility with the distribution-based regularization. This allows efficient alignment of heterogeneous latent variable distributions to derive reliable interaction predictions compared to the existing point-based graph embedding methods. Our experiments on several real-world datasets demonstrate enhanced performance of MoReL in inferring meaningful interactions compared to existing baselines. 
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    High-throughput molecular profiling technologies have produced high-dimensional multi-omics data, enabling systematic understanding of living systems at the genome scale. Studying molecular interactions across different data types helps reveal signal transduction mechanisms across different classes of molecules. In this paper, we develop a novel Bayesian representation learning method that infers the relational interactions across multi-omics data types. Our method, Bayesian Relational Learning (BayReL) for multi-omics data integration, takes advantage of a priori known relationships among the same class of molecules, modeled as a graph at each corresponding view, to learn view-specific latent variables as well as a multi-partite graph that encodes the interactions across views. Our experiments on several real-world datasets demonstrate enhanced performance of BayReL in inferring meaningful interactions compared to existing baselines. 
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  3. Stochastic recurrent neural networks with latent random variables of complex dependency structures have shown to be more successful in modeling sequential data than deterministic deep models. However, the majority of existing methods have limited expressive power due to the Gaussian assumption of latent variables. In this paper, we advocate learning implicit latent representations using semi-implicit variational inference to further increase model flexibility. Semi-implicit stochastic recurrent neural network (SIS-RNN) is developed to enrich inferred model posteriors that may have no analytic density functions, as long as independent random samples can be generated via reparameterization. Extensive experiments in different tasks on real-world datasets show that SIS-RNN outperforms the existing methods. 
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  5. Representation learning over graph structured data has been mostly studied in static graph settings while efforts for modeling dynamic graphs are still scant. In this paper, we develop a novel hierarchical variational model that introduces additional latent random variables to jointly model the hidden states of a graph recurrent neural network (GRNN) to capture both topology and node attribute changes in dynamic graphs. We argue that the use of high-level latent random variables in this variational GRNN (VGRNN) can better capture potential variability observed in dynamic graphs as well as the uncertainty of node latent representation. With semi-implicit variational inference developed for this new VGRNN architecture (SI-VGRNN), we show that flexible non-Gaussian latent representations can further help dynamic graph analytic tasks. Our experiments with multiple real-world dynamic graph datasets demonstrate that SI-VGRNN and VGRNN consistently outperform the existing baseline and state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin in dynamic link prediction. 
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  6. Semi-implicit graph variational auto-encoder (SIG-VAE) is proposed to expand the flexibility of variational graph auto-encoders (VGAE) to model graph data. SIG-VAE employs a hierarchical variational framework to enable neighboring node sharing for better generative modeling of graph dependency structure, together with a Bernoulli-Poisson link decoder. Not only does this hierarchical construction provide a more flexible generative graph model to better capture real-world graph properties, but also does SIG-VAE naturally lead to semi-implicit hierarchical variational inference that allows faithful modeling of implicit posteriors of given graph data, which may exhibit heavy tails, multiple modes, skewness, and rich dependency structures. SIG-VAE integrates a carefully designed generative model, well suited to model real-world sparse graphs, and a sophisticated variational inference network, which propagates the graph structural information and distribution uncertainty to capture complex posteriors. SIG-VAE clearly outperforms a simple combination of VGAE with variational inference, including semi-implicit variational inference~(SIVI) or normalizing flow (NF), which does not propagate uncertainty in its inference network, and provides more interpretable latent representations than VGAE does. Extensive experiments with a variety of graph data show that SIG-VAE significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods on several different graph analytic tasks. 
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    We propose a unified framework for adap- tive connection sampling in graph neural net- works (GNNs) that generalizes existing stochas- tic regularization methods for training GNNs. The proposed framework not only alleviates over- smoothing and over-fitting tendencies of deep GNNs, but also enables learning with uncertainty in graph analytic tasks with GNNs. Instead of using fixed sampling rates or hand-tuning them as model hyperparameters as in existing stochas- tic regularization methods, our adaptive connec- tion sampling can be trained jointly with GNN model parameters in both global and local fash- ions. GNN training with adaptive connection sampling is shown to be mathematically equiv- alent to an efficient approximation of training Bayesian GNNs. Experimental results with abla- tion studies on benchmark datasets validate that adaptively learning the sampling rate given graph training data is the key to boosting the perfor- mance of GNNs in semi-supervised node classifi- cation, making them less prone to over-smoothing and over-fitting with more robust prediction. 
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  8. Background: Single-cell gene expression measurements offer opportunities in deriving mechanistic understanding of complex diseases, including cancer. However, due to the complex regulatory machinery of the cell, gene regulatory network (GRN) model inference based on such data still manifests significant uncertainty. Results:The goal of this paper is to develop optimal classification of single-cell trajectories accounting for potential model uncertainty. Partially-observed Boolean dynamical systems (POBDS) are used for modeling gene regulatory networks observed through noisy gene-expression data. We derive the exact optimal Bayesian classifier (OBC) for binary classification of single-cell trajectories. The application of the OBC becomes impractical for large GRNs, due to computational and memory requirements. To address this, we introduce a particle-based single-cell classification method that is highly scalable for large GRNs with much lower complexity than the optimal solution. Conclusion:The performance of the proposed particle-based method is demonstrated through numerical experiments using a POBDS model of the well-known T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia network with noisy time-series gene-expression 
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