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  1. Aeromechanics of highly flexible flapping wings is a complex nonlinear fluid–structure interaction problem and, therefore, cannot be analyzed using conventional linear aeroelasticity methods. This paper presents a standalone coupled aeroelastic framework for highly flexible flapping wings in hover for micro air vehicle (MAV) applications. The MAV-scale flapping wing structure is modeled using fully nonlinear beam and shell finite elements. A potential-flow-based unsteady aerodynamic model is then coupled with the structural model to generate the coupled aeroelastic framework. Both the structural and aerodynamic models are validated independently before coupling. Instantaneous lift force and wing deflection predictions from the coupled aeroelastic simulations are compared with the force and deflection measurements (using digital image correlation) obtained from in-house flapping wing experiments at both moderate (13 Hz) and high (20 Hz) flapping frequencies. Coupled trim analysis is then performed by simultaneously solving wing response equations and vehicle trim equations until trim controls, wing elastic response, inflow and circulation converge all together. The dependence of control inputs on weight and center of gravity (cg) location of the vehicle is studied for the hovering flight case. 
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