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Creators/Authors contains: "Halimi, Anisa"

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  1. Abstract

    The rapid improvements in genomic sequencing technology have led to the proliferation of locally collected genomic datasets. Given the sensitivity of genomic data, it is crucial to conduct collaborative studies while preserving the privacy of the individuals. However, before starting any collaborative research effort, the quality of the data needs to be assessed. One of the essential steps of the quality control process is population stratification: identifying the presence of genetic difference in individuals due to subpopulations. One of the common methods used to group genomes of individuals based on ancestry is principal component analysis (PCA). In this article, we propose a privacy-preserving framework which utilizes PCA to assign individuals to populations across multiple collaborators as part of the population stratification step. In our proposed client-server-based scheme, we initially let the server train a global PCA model on a publicly available genomic dataset which contains individuals from multiple populations. The global PCA model is later used to reduce the dimensionality of the local data by each collaborator (client). After adding noise to achieve local differential privacy (LDP), the collaborators send metadata (in the form of their local PCA outputs) about their research datasets to the server, which then aligns the local PCA results to identify the genetic differences among collaborators’ datasets. Our results on real genomic data show that the proposed framework can perform population stratification analysis with high accuracy while preserving the privacy of the research participants.

     
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  2. Providing provenance in scientific workflows is essential for reproducibility and auditability purposes. In this work, we propose a framework that verifies the correctness of the aggregate statistics obtained as a result of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted by a researcher while protecting individuals’ privacy in the researcher’s dataset. In GWAS, the goal of the researcher is to identify highly associated point mutations (variants) with a given phenotype. The researcher publishes the workflow of the conducted study, its output, and associated metadata. They keep the research dataset private while providing, as part of the metadata, a partial noisy dataset (that achieves local differential privacy). To check the correctness of the workflow output, a verifier makes use of the workflow, its metadata, and results of another GWAS (conducted using publicly available datasets) to distinguish between correct statistics and incorrect ones. For evaluation, we use real genomic data and show that the correctness of the workflow output can be verified with high accuracy even when the aggregate statistics of a small number of variants are provided. We also quantify the privacy leakage due to the provided workflow and its associated metadata and show that the additional privacy risk due to the provided metadata does not increase the existing privacy risk due to sharing of the research results. Thus, our results show that the workflow output (i.e., research results) can be verified with high confidence in a privacy-preserving way. We believe that this work will be a valuable step towards providing provenance in a privacy-preserving way while providing guarantees to the users about the correctness of the results. 
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