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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 19, 2024
  2. Considerable attention is given to absolute nutrient levels in lakes, rivers, and oceans, but less is paid to their relative concentrations, their nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) stoichiometry, and the consequences of imbalanced stoichiometry. Here, we report 38 y of nutrient dynamics in Flathead Lake, a large oligotrophic lake in Montana, and its inflows. While nutrient levels were low, the lake had sustained high total N: total P ratios (TN:TP: 60 to 90:1 molar) throughout the observation period. N and P loading to the lake as well as loading N:P ratios varied considerably among years but showed no systematic long-term trend. Surprisingly, TN:TP ratios in river inflows were consistently lower than in the lake, suggesting that forms of P in riverine loading are removed preferentially to N. In-lake processes, such as differential sedimentation of P relative to N or accumulation of fixed N in excess of denitrification, likely also operate to maintain the lake’s high TN:TP ratios. Regardless of causes, the lake’s stoichiometric imbalance is manifested in P limitation of phytoplankton growth during early and midsummer, resulting in high C:P and N:P ratios in suspended particulate matter that propagate P limitation to zooplankton. Finally, the lake’s imbalanced N:P stoichiometry appears to raise the potential for aerobic methane production via metabolism of phosphonate compounds by P-limited microbes. These data highlight the importance of not only absolute N and P levels in aquatic ecosystems, but also their stoichiometric balance, and they call attention to potential management implications of high N:P ratios. 
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  3. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation drive much of the variation in productivity across Earth's terrestrial ecosystems but do not explain variation in gross primary productivity (GPP) or ecosystem respiration (ER) in flowing waters. We document substantial variation in the magnitude and seasonality of GPP and ER across 222 US rivers. In contrast to their terrestrial counterparts, most river ecosystems respire far more carbon than they fix and have less pronounced and consistent seasonality in their metabolic rates. We find that variation in annual solar energy inputs and stability of flows are the primary drivers of GPP and ER across rivers. A classification schema based on these drivers advances river science and informs management. 
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  4. Abstract The relationship between detritivore diversity and decomposition can provide information on how biogeochemical cycles are affected by ongoing rates of extinction, but such evidence has come mostly from local studies and microcosm experiments. We conducted a globally distributed experiment (38 streams across 23 countries in 6 continents) using standardised methods to test the hypothesis that detritivore diversity enhances litter decomposition in streams, to establish the role of other characteristics of detritivore assemblages (abundance, biomass and body size), and to determine how patterns vary across realms, biomes and climates. We observed a positive relationship between diversity and decomposition, strongest in tropical areas, and a key role of abundance and biomass at higher latitudes. Our results suggest that litter decomposition might be altered by detritivore extinctions, particularly in tropical areas, where detritivore diversity is already relatively low and some environmental stressors particularly prevalent. 
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