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  1. Marshall, Heather K. ; Spyromilio, Jason ; Usuda, Tomonori (Ed.)
    The novel 9.7m Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope (SCT), utilizing aspheric dual-mirror optical system, has been constructed as a prototype medium size x-ray telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. The prototype SCT (pSCT) is designed to achieve simultaneously the wide (≥ 8°) field of view and the superior imaging resolution (0.067 per pixel) to significantly improve scientific capabilities of the observatory in conducting the sky surveys, the follow-up observations of multi-messenger transients with poorly known initial localization and the morphology studies of x-ray sources with angular extent. In this submission, we describe the hardware and software implementations of the telescope opticalmore »system as well as the methods specifically developed to align its complex optical system, in which both primary and secondary mirrors are segmented. The pSCT has detected Crab Nebula in June 2020 during ongoing commissioning, which was delayed due to worldwide pandemic and is not yet completed. Verification of pSCT performance is continuing and further improvement of optical alignment is anticipated.« less
  2. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Abstract We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon–neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of 650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 yr of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of ϕ @ 100more »TeV ν μ + ν ¯ μ = 1.44 − 0.26 + 0.25 × 10 − 18 GeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 sr − 1 and a spectral index γ SPL = 2.37 − 0.09 + 0.09 , constrained in the energy range from 15 TeV to 5 PeV. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class-specific flux predictions from the literature, and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data are consistent with a single power-law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV are statistically more favorable at a two-sigma level.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole has measured the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux up to ~PeV energies and is starting to identify first point source candidates. The next generation facility, IceCube-Gen2, aims at extending the accessible energy range to EeV in order to measure the continuation of the astrophysical spectrum, to identify neutrino sources, and to search for a cosmogenic neutrino flux. As part of IceCube-Gen2, a radio array is foreseen that is sensitive to detect Askaryan emission of neutrinos beyond ~30 PeV. Surface and deep antenna stations have different benefits in terms of effective area, resolution, andmore »the capability to reject backgrounds from cosmic-ray air showers and may be combined to reach the best sensitivity. The optimal detector configuration is still to be identified. This contribution presents the full-array simulation efforts for a combination of deep and surface antennas, and compares different design options with respect to their sensitivity to fulfill the science goals of IceCube-Gen2.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023
  6. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory opened the window on high-energy neutrino astronomy by confirming the existence of PeV astrophysical neutrinos and identifying the first compelling astrophysical neutrino source in the blazar TXS0506+056. Planning is underway to build an enlarged detector, IceCube-Gen2, which will extend measurements to higher energies, increase the rate of observed cosmic neutrinos and provide improved prospects for detecting fainter sources. IceCube-Gen2 is planned to have an extended in-ice optical array, a radio array at shallower depths for detecting ultra-high-energy (>100 PeV) neutrinos, and a surface component studying cosmic rays. In this contribution, we will discuss the simulation ofmore »the in-ice optical component of the baseline design of the IceCube-Gen2 detector, which foresees the deployment of an additional ~120 new detection strings to the existing 86 in IceCube over ~7 Antarctic summer seasons. Motivated by the phased construction plan for IceCube-Gen2, we discuss how the reconstruction capabilities and sensitivities of the instrument are expected to progress throughout its deployment.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023