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Creators/Authors contains: "Hamer, Jacob H."

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  1. Abstract

    Before the launch of the Kepler Space Telescope, models of low-mass planet formation predicted that convergent type I migration would often produce systems of low-mass planets in low-order mean-motion resonances. Instead, Kepler discovered that systems of small planets frequently have period ratios larger than those associated with mean-motion resonances and rarely have period ratios smaller than those associated with mean-motion resonances. Both short-timescale processes related to the formation or early evolution of planetary systems and long-timescale secular processes have been proposed as explanations for these observations. Using a thin disk stellar population’s Galactic velocity dispersion as a relative age proxy, we find that Kepler-discovered multiple-planet systems with at least one planet pair near a period ratio suggestive of a second-order mean-motion resonance have a colder Galactic velocity dispersion and are therefore younger than both single-transiting and multiple-planet systems that lack planet pairs consistent with mean-motion resonances. We argue that a nontidal secular process with a characteristic timescale no less than a few hundred Myr is responsible for moving systems of low-mass planets away from second-order mean-motion resonances. Among systems with at least one planet pair near a period ratio suggestive of a first-order mean-motion resonance, only the population of systems likely affected by tidal dissipation inside their innermost planets has a small Galactic velocity dispersion and is therefore young. We predict that period ratios suggestive of mean-motion resonances are more common in young systems with 10 Myr ≲τ≲ 100 Myr and become less common as planetary systems age.

     
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  2. Abstract

    It has been shown that hot Jupiters systems with massive, hot stellar primaries exhibit a wide range of stellar obliquities. On the other hand, hot Jupiter systems with low-mass, cool primaries often have stellar obliquities close to zero. Efficient tidal interactions between hot Jupiters and the convective envelopes present in lower-mass main-sequence stars have been a popular explanation for these observations. If this explanation is accurate, then aligned systems should be older than misaligned systems. Likewise, the convective envelope mass of a hot Jupiter’s host star should be an effective predictor of its obliquity. We derive homogeneous stellar parameters—including convective envelope masses—for hot Jupiter host stars with high-quality sky-projected obliquity inferences. Using a thin-disk stellar population’s Galactic velocity dispersion as a relative age proxy, we find that hot Jupiter host stars with larger-than-median obliquities are older than hot Jupiter host stars with smaller-than-median obliquities. The relative age difference between the two populations is larger for hot Jupiter host stars with smaller-than-median fractional convective envelope masses and is significant at the 3.6σlevel. We identify stellar mass, not convective envelope mass, as the best predictor of stellar obliquity in hot Jupiter systems. The best explanation for these observations is that many hot Jupiters in misaligned systems arrived in the close proximity of their host stars long after their parent protoplanetary disks dissipated. The dependence of observed age offset on convective envelope mass suggests that tidal realignment contributes to the population of aligned hot Jupiters orbiting stars with convective envelopes.

     
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