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Atomic-scale electronic structure of the cuprate pair density wave state coexisting with superconductivityThe defining characteristic of hole-doped cuprates is d -wave high temperature superconductivity. However, intense theoretical interest is now focused on whether a pair density wave state (PDW) could coexist with cuprate superconductivity [D. F. Agterberg et al., Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 11, 231 (2020)]. Here, we use a strong-coupling mean-field theory of cuprates, to model the atomic-scale electronic structure of an eight-unit-cell periodic, d -symmetry form factor, pair density wave (PDW) state coexisting with d -wave superconductivity (DSC). From this PDW + DSC model, the atomically resolved density of Bogoliubov quasiparticle states N r , E is predicted at the terminal BiO surface of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and compared with high-precision electronic visualization experiments using spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The PDW + DSC model predictions include the intraunit-cell structure and periodic modulations of N r , E , the modulations of the coherence peak energy Δ p r , and the characteristics of Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference in scattering-wavevector space q - space . Consistency between all these predictions and the corresponding experiments indicates that lightly hole-doped Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 does contain a PDW + DSC state. Moreover,more »
High magnetic fields suppress cuprate superconductivity to reveal an unusual density wave (DW) state coexisting with unexplained quantum oscillations. Although routinely labeled a charge density wave (CDW), this DW state could actually be an electron-pair density wave (PDW). To search for evidence of a field-induced PDW, we visualized modulations in the density of electronic states N ( r ) within the halo surrounding Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 vortex cores. We detected numerous phenomena predicted for a field-induced PDW, including two sets of particle-hole symmetric N ( r ) modulations with wave vectors Q P and 2 Q P , with the latter decaying twice as rapidly from the core as the former. These data imply that the primary field-induced state in underdoped superconducting cuprates is a PDW, with approximately eight CuO 2 unit-cell periodicity and coexisting with its secondary CDWs.