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Creators/Authors contains: "Hammer, Nathan I."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
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  4. Fluorescent organic dyes that absorb and emit in the near-infrared (NIR, 700–1000 nm) and shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1000–1700 nm) regions have the potential to produce noninvasive high-contrast biological images and videos. BODIPY dyes are well known for their high quantum yields in the visible energy region. To tune these chromophores to the NIR region, fused nitrogen-based heterocyclic indolizine donors were added to a BODIPY scaffold. The indolizine BODIPY dyes were synthesized via microwave-assisted Knoevenagel condensation with indolizine aldehydes. The non-protonated dyes showed NIR absorption and emission at longer wavelengths than an aniline benchmark. Protonation of the dyes produced a dramatic 0.35 eV bathochromic shift (230 nm shift from 797 nm to 1027 nm) to give a SWIR absorption and emission (λmaxemis = 1061 nm). Deprotonation demonstrates that material emission is reversibly switchable between the NIR and SWIR. 
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  6. The potential formation of halogen bonded complexes between a donor, heptafluoro-2-iodopropane (HFP), and the three acceptor heterocyclic azines (azabenzenes: pyridine, pyrimidine, and pyridazine) is investigated herein through normal mode analysis via Raman spectroscopy, density functional theory, and natural electron configuration analysis. Theoretical Raman spectra of the halogen bonded complexes are in good agreement with experimental data providing insight into the Raman spectra of these complexes. The exhibited shifts in vibrational frequency of as high as 8 cm −1 for each complex demonstrate, in conjunction with NEC analysis, significant evidence of charge transfer from the halogen bond acceptor to donor. Here, an interesting charge flow mechanism is proposed involving the donated nitrogen lone pair electrons pushing the dissociated fluorine atoms back to their respective atoms. This mechanism provides further insight into the formation and fundamental nature of halogen bonding and its effects on neighboring atoms. The present findings provide novel and deeper characterization of halogen bonding with applications in supramolecular and organometallic chemistry. 
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