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Mirrokni, V (Ed.)Signal estimation problems with smoothness and sparsity priors can be naturally modeled as quadratic optimization with L0“norm” constraints. Since such problems are nonconvex and hardtosolve, the standard approach is, instead, to tackle their convex surrogates based on L1norm relaxations. In this paper, we propose new iterative (convex) conic quadratic relaxations that exploit not only the L0“norm” terms, but also the fitness and smoothness functions. The iterative convexification approach substantially closes the gap between the L0“norm” and its L1 surrogate. These stronger relaxations lead to significantly better estimators than L1norm approaches and also allow one to utilize affine sparsity priors. Inmore »Free, publiclyaccessible full text available February 1, 2022

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available February 1, 2022

We combine equation of state of dense matter up to twice nuclear saturation density (nsat = 0.16 fm−3 ) obtained using chiral effective field theory (χEFT), and recent observations of neutron stars to gain insights about the highdensity matter encountered in their cores. A key element in our study is the recent Bayesian analysis of correlated EFT truncation errors based on orderbyorder calculations up to nexttonexttonexttoleading order in the χEFT expansion. We refine the bounds on the maximum mass imposed by causality at high densities, and provide stringent limits on the maximum and minimum radii of ∼ 1.4 M andmore »

Power amplification allows animals to produce movements that exceed the physiological limits of muscle power and speed, such as the mantis shrimp’s ultrafast predatory strike and the flea’s jump. However, all known examples of nonhuman, muscledriven power amplification involve anatomical structures that store energy from a single cycle of muscular contraction. Here, we describe a nonhuman example of external power amplification using a constructed device: the web of the triangleweaver spider, Hyptiotes cavatus , which uses energy stored in the silk threads to actively tangle prey from afar. Hyptiotes stretches its web by tightening a separate anchor line over multiplemore »

Abstract. This study streamlines modeling of the gas–wall process (GWP) of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) by predicting gas–wall equilibrium partitioning constant (𝐾𝑤,𝑖 ) and accommodation coefficient (α𝑤,𝑖) of SVOC(i) using a quantitative structure–activity relationship. PaDELDescriptor, software that calculates molecular descriptors, is employed to obtain physicochemical parameters (i.e., hydrogen bond acidity (𝐻𝑑,𝑖), hydrogen bond basicity (𝐻𝑎,𝑖), dipolarity/polarizability (𝑆𝑖), and polarizability (α𝑖)) of SVOC(i). For the prediction of 𝐾𝑤,𝑖, activity coefficients (γw,i) of SVOC(i) to the chamber wall are semiempirically predicted using chamber data in the form of a polynomial equation coupled with the physicochemical parameters. 𝛾𝑤,𝑖 of various SVOCs differ inmore »