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  1. Abstract

    As mass bleaching events decimate stony coral populations, production of calcium carbonate is diminished on reefs, dampening their capacity to keep pace with rising sea levels. However, perturbations to the calcification process of surviving wild corals during bleaching are poorly constrained, owing to the lack of suitable techniques to retroactively extract this information from coral skeletons at sufficient resolution. Here, we use novel Raman spectrometry techniques to test the biogeochemical response of long‐lived corals before, during, and after bleaching. Maintenance of high aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) in the coral calcifying fluid is key to driving rapid skeletal growth but would be expected to decrease when corals become energetically depleted without their symbionts. Contrary to this expectation, our results demonstrate that corals upregulate calcifying fluid ΩArduring bleaching and for at least 2 yr after recovery. This indicates that the calcification process of coral‐bleaching survivors is unexpectedly resilient.

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  2. Abstract Study Objectives

    Previous research examining toddler sleep problems has relied almost exclusively on variable-centered statistical approaches to analyze these data, which provide helpful information about the development of the average child. The current study examined whether person-centered trajectory analysis, a statistical technique that can identify subgroups of children who differ in their initial level and/or trajectory of sleep problems, has the potential to inform our understanding of toddler sleep problems and their development.


    Families (N = 185) were assessed at 12, 24, 30, and 36 months of child age. Latent class growth analysis was used to test for subgroups that differed in their 24–36 month sleep problems. Subgroups were compared on child 36-month externalizing, internalizing, and total problem behaviors, and on 12 month maternal mental health, inter-parental conflict, and maternal parenting behaviors.


    Results support a four-class solution, with “low, stable,” “low, increasing,” “high, increasing,” and “high decreasing” classes. The classes whose sleep problems persisted or worsened over time had worse behavioral problems than those whose symptoms improved or remained stably low. Additionally, 12 month maternal depression and global symptom severity, intimate partner violence, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors discriminated between the classes that had similar levels of 24 month sleep disturbance but who had diverging trajectories over time.


    This statistical approach appears to have the potential to increase understanding of sleep problem trajectories in the early years of life. Maternal mental health, intimate partner violence, and parenting behaviors may be clinically useful markers of risk for the persistence or development of toddler sleep problems.

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  3. Redox-active metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for a number of next-generation technologies, and recent work has shown that redox manipulation can dramatically enhance electrical conductivity in MOFs. However, ligand-based strategies for controlling conductivity remain under-developed, particularly those that make use of reversible redox processes. Here we report the first use of ligand n-doping to engender electrical conductivity in a porous 3D MOF, leading to tunable conductivity values that span over six orders of magnitude. Moreover, this work represents the first example of redox switching leading to reversible conductivity changes in a 3D MOF. 
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  4. Abstract

    Exposure to higher levels of sociodemographic risk is associated with lower levels of academic achievement among young children. However, there is variability in the strength of this association, which may be traced to individual differences in physiological processes underlying self‐regulation. In the current study, we examined whether the response of the parasympathetic nervous system to challenge, indexed by change in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), moderated the association between risk and school readiness at 5 years of age in a diverse sample of young children. We found that parasympathetic response to the Still‐Face Paradigm moderated the effects of risk on a measure of school readiness, such that there was no association between risk and school readiness among children who exhibited RSA decreases during challenge at 6 months of age, a purported index of self‐regulation at this age. For those infants who did not exhibit RSA withdrawal during this challenge, exposure to early cumulative risk was associated with lower scores on achievement assessment. These results speak to the possibility that certain patterns of parasympathetic response can serve as a protective factor for young children growing up in disadvantaged environments.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  7. Abstract The global network of gravitational-wave observatories now includes five detectors, namely LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, Virgo, KAGRA, and GEO 600. These detectors collected data during their third observing run, O3, composed of three phases: O3a starting in 2019 April and lasting six months, O3b starting in 2019 November and lasting five months, and O3GK starting in 2020 April and lasting two weeks. In this paper we describe these data and various other science products that can be freely accessed through the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center at . The main data set, consisting of the gravitational-wave strain time series that contains the astrophysical signals, is released together with supporting data useful for their analysis and documentation, tutorials, as well as analysis software packages. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  8. Abstract We use 47 gravitational wave sources from the Third LIGO–Virgo–Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector Gravitational Wave Transient Catalog (GWTC–3) to estimate the Hubble parameter H ( z ), including its current value, the Hubble constant H 0 . Each gravitational wave (GW) signal provides the luminosity distance to the source, and we estimate the corresponding redshift using two methods: the redshifted masses and a galaxy catalog. Using the binary black hole (BBH) redshifted masses, we simultaneously infer the source mass distribution and H ( z ). The source mass distribution displays a peak around 34 M ⊙ , followed by a drop-off. Assuming this mass scale does not evolve with the redshift results in a H ( z ) measurement, yielding H 0 = 68 − 8 + 12 km s − 1 Mpc − 1 (68% credible interval) when combined with the H 0 measurement from GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart. This represents an improvement of 17% with respect to the H 0 estimate from GWTC–1. The second method associates each GW event with its probable host galaxy in the catalog GLADE+ , statistically marginalizing over the redshifts of each event’s potential hosts. Assuming a fixed BBH population, we estimate a value of H 0 = 68 − 6 + 8 km s − 1 Mpc − 1 with the galaxy catalog method, an improvement of 42% with respect to our GWTC–1 result and 20% with respect to recent H 0 studies using GWTC–2 events. However, we show that this result is strongly impacted by assumptions about the BBH source mass distribution; the only event which is not strongly impacted by such assumptions (and is thus informative about H 0 ) is the well-localized event GW190814. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  10. Abstract We present the results of a model-based search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 using LIGO detector data from the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. This is a semicoherent search that uses details of the signal model to coherently combine data separated by less than a specified coherence time, which can be adjusted to balance sensitivity with computing cost. The search covered a range of gravitational-wave frequencies from 25 to 1600 Hz, as well as ranges in orbital speed, frequency, and phase determined from observational constraints. No significant detection candidates were found, and upper limits were set as a function of frequency. The most stringent limits, between 100 and 200 Hz, correspond to an amplitude h 0 of about 10 −25 when marginalized isotropically over the unknown inclination angle of the neutron star’s rotation axis, or less than 4 × 10 −26 assuming the optimal orientation. The sensitivity of this search is now probing amplitudes predicted by models of torque balance equilibrium. For the usual conservative model assuming accretion at the surface of the neutron star, our isotropically marginalized upper limits are close to the predicted amplitude from about 70 to 100 Hz; the limits assuming that the neutron star spin is aligned with the most likely orbital angular momentum are below the conservative torque balance predictions from 40 to 200 Hz. Assuming a broader range of accretion models, our direct limits on gravitational-wave amplitude delve into the relevant parameter space over a wide range of frequencies, to 500 Hz or more. 
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